SDA "Truth" Versus Bible Truth: Vegetarianism
In brief, SDAs...
- Teach eating meat destroys physical, mental, and spiritual health
SDA "Truth" about Vegetarianism
Seventh-day Adventists have long been known as advocates of a vegetarian diet. The primary voice promoting vegetarianism in the SDA Church was the Prophetess Ellen White who claimed to have received a vision on the subject in 1863:
"It was at the house of Brother A. Hilliard, at Otsego, Michigan, June 6, 1863, That the great subject of health Reform was opened before me in vision. ... The Lord presented a general plan before me. I was shown that God would give to His commandment-keeping people a reform diet..."1
In the years following the "vision" the Whites and other SDA leaders introduced various health reforms into the Seventh-day
Adventist Church. Rather than being "new and innovative", the Whites merely introduced to their followers many of the
popular health reforms of that era that had been taught and were being taught by non-Adventists such as
Dr. James Jackson, John Wesley, Sylvester Graham, and Mormon prophet Joseph Smith.
Since the late 1860s, the SDA Church has been advocating a vegetarian diet. Since Biblical support for a vegetarian diet is lacking, SDAs must turn to the Prophetess Ellen White for inspiration. In 1938, the SDA Church compiled Ellen White's writings on health into a book entitled Counsels on Diets and Foods, and the following quotations are taken from that book:
"Butter and meat stimulate. These have injured the stomach and perverted the taste. The sensitive nerves of the brain have been benumbed, and the animal appetite strengthened at the expense of the moral and intellectual faculties. These higher powers, which should control, have been growing weaker, so that eternal things have not been discerned. Paralysis has benumbed the spiritual and devotional." (p. 48)
"Meat should not be placed before our children. Its influence is to excite and strengthen the lower passions, and has a tendency to deaden the moral powers. Grains and fruits prepared free from grease, and in as natural a condition as possible, should be the food for the tables of all who claim to be preparing for translation to heaven." (pp. 63-64)
"They [parents] tempt their children to indulge their appetite by placing upon their tables flesh meats and other food prepared with spices, which have a tendency to excite the animal passions." (pp. 231-232)
"Flesh meats, butter, cheese, rich pastry, spiced foods, and condiments are freely partaken of by both old and young. These things do their work in deranging the stomach, exciting the nerves, and enfeebling the intellect. The blood-making organs cannot convert such things into good blood." (p. 236)
"When the message comes to those who have not heard the truth for this time, they see that a great reformation must take place in their diet. They see that they must put away flesh food, because it creates an appetite for liquor,
and fills the system with disease. By meat eating, the physical, mental, and moral powers are weakened. Man is built up from that which he eats. Animal passions bear sway as the result of meat eating, tobacco using, and liquor drinking." (p. 268-269)
"As a general thing, the Lord did not provide His people with flesh meat in the desert, because He knew that the use of this diet would create disease and insubordination." (p. 375)
"Vegetables, fruits, and grains should compose our diet. Not an ounce of flesh meat should enter our stomachs. The eating of flesh is unnatural. We are to return to God's original purpose in the creation of man." (p. 380)
"Is it not time that all should aim to dispense with flesh foods? How can those who are seeking to become pure, refined, and holy, that they may have the companionship of heavenly angels, continue to use as food anything that has so harmful an effect on soul and body?" (p. 380)
"Among those who are waiting for the coming of the Lord, meat eating will eventually be done away; flesh will cease to form a part of their diet." (pp. 380-381)
"There are those who ought to be awake to the danger of meat eating, who are still eating the flesh of animals, thus endangering the physical, mental, and spiritual health. Many who are now only half converted on the question of meat eating will go from God's people to walk no more with them." (p. 382)
"A diet of flesh meat tends to develop animalism. A development of animalism lessens spirituality, rendering the mind incapable of understanding truth." (p. 382)
"It has been clearly presented to me that God's people are to take a firm stand against meat eating." (p. 383)
"Oh, if every one could discern these matters as they have been presented to me, those who are now so careless, so indifferent in regard to their character building; those who plead for indulgence in a flesh meat diet, would never open their lips in justification of an appetite for the flesh of dead animals. Such a diet contaminates the blood in their veins, and stimulates the lower animal passions. It enfeebles keen perception and vigor of thought to the understanding of God and the truth, and a knowledge of themselves." (p. 384)
"The liability to take disease is increased tenfold by meat eating." (p. 386)
"The meat diet is the serious question. Shall human beings live on the flesh of dead animals? The answer, from the light that God has given is, No, decidedly No." (p. 388)
"Those who use flesh meats freely, do not always have an unclouded brain and an active intellect, because the use of the flesh of animals tends to cause a grossness of body, and to benumb the finer sensibilities of the mind. ... It is impossible for those who make free use of flesh meats to have an unclouded brain and an active intellect." (p. 389)
"A religious life can be more successfully gained and maintained if meat is discarded, for this diet stimulates into intense activity lustful propensities, and enfeebles the moral and spiritual nature." (p. 389)
"But we do say that flesh meat is not the right food for God's people. It animalizes human beings." (p. 390)
"The intellectual, the moral, and the physical powers are depreciated by the habitual use of flesh meats. Meat eating deranges the system, beclouds the intellect, and blunts the moral sensibilities. We say to you, dear brother and sister, your safest course is to let meat alone." (p. 391)
"There are those among Seventh-day Adventists who will not heed the light given them in regard to this matter. They make flesh meat a part of their diet. Disease comes upon them. Sick and suffering as a result of their own wrong course, they ask for the prayers of the servants of God. But how can the Lord work in their behalf when they are not willing to do His will, when they refuse to heed His instruction in regard to health reform?
... For thirty years the light on health reform has been coming to the people of God, but many have made it a subject of jest. They have continued to use tea, coffee, spices, and flesh meat. Their bodies are full of disease. How can we, I ask, present such ones to the Lord for healing?" (p. 400)
To summarize Mrs. White's teachings on meat in the diet:
- Clouds the brain
- Benumbs the intellect
- Enfeebles and deadens the moral nature
- Weakens the higher powers
- Lessens spirituality
- Renders mind incapable of understanding truth
- Causes insubordination
- Stimulates lustful propensities
- Strengthens the lower passions
- Animalizes a person, strengthens the animal appetites
- Interferes with the religious life
- Causes a person to miss out on companionship with heavenly angels
- May cause God to decide not to heal someone's sickness
- Causes sickness and disease
- Endangers physical, mental, and spiritual health
Problems with SDA "Truth" about Vegetarianism
1. Are animal passions increased by meat eating? - One of the principal reasons Ellen White encouraged vegetarianism
is because she believed that by eating meat, the lower, base, "animal" passions would be aroused. The basis of this is not
found in any Biblical or scientific evidence. Instead, the notion that animal passions were aroused by eating animals was popularized
in the 1800s by health reformer Sylvester Graham.
Graham taught that the "use of flesh" would arouse "sexual desire" and
would damage the "intellectual and moral faculties"2 Since meat eating aroused the sexual appetites, Graham
suggested that for those suffering from temptation, "no animal food, therefore, should be used in any quantity."3
2. Does eating meat cause disease? - Does eating meat, as part of an overall balanced diet, actually cause an
increase in disease? Dr. Stephen Byrnes, a naturopathic physician, writes:
"Oftentimes, vegans and vegetarians will try to scare people into avoiding animal foods and fats by claiming that
vegetarian diets offer protection from certain chronic diseases [osteoporosis, kidney disease, heart disease, cancer].
Such claims, however, are hard to reconcile with historical and anthropological facts. All of the diseases mentioned are
primarily 20th century occurrences, yet people have been eating meat and animal fat for many thousands of years. Further,
as Dr. Price's research showed, there were/are several native peoples around the world (the Innuit, Maasai, Swiss, etc.)
whose traditional diets were/are very rich in animal products, but who nevertheless
did/do not suffer from the above-mentioned maladies (30). Dr. George Mann's independent studies of the Maasai
done many years after Dr. Price, confirmed the fact that the Maasai, despite being almost
exclusive meat eaters, nevertheless, had little to no incidence of heart disease, or other chronic ailments (31).
This proves that other factors besides animal foods are at work in causing these diseases.
"Several studies have supposedly shown that meat consumption is the cause of various
illnesses, but such studies, honestly evaluated, show no such thing as the following discussion will show.
"Dr. Herta Spencer's research on protein intake and bone loss clearly showed that protein consumption in the form of real
meat has no impact on bone density. Studies that supposedly proved that excessive protein consumption equaled more bone
loss were not done with real meat but with fractionated protein powders and isolated amino acids (32). Recent studies have
also shown that increased animal protein intake contributes to stronger bone density in men and women (33). Some recent
studies on vegan and vegetarian diets, however, have shown them to predispose women to osteoporosis (34).
"Although protein-restricted diets are helpful for people with kidney disease, there is no proof that eating meat causes
it (35). Vegetarians will also typically claim that animal protein causes overly acidic conditions in the blood, resulting
in calcium leaching from the bones and, hence, a greater tendency to form kidney stones. This opinion is false, however.
Theoretically, the sulphur and phosphorous in meat can form an acid when placed in water, but that does not mean that is
what happens in the body. Actually, meat contains complete proteins and vitamin D (if the skin and fat are eaten),
both of which help maintain pH balance in the bloodstream. Furthermore, if one eats a diet that includes enough magnesium
and vitamin B6, and restricts refined sugars, one has little to fear from kidney stones, whether one eats meat or not (36).
Animal foods like beef, pork, fish, and lamb are good sources of magnesium and B6 as any food/nutrient table will show.
"The belief that animal protein contributes to heart disease is a popular one that has no foundation in nutritional science.
Outside of questionable studies, there is little data to support the idea that meat-eating leads to heart disease.
For example, the French have one of the highest per capita consumption of meat, yet have low rates of heart disease. In
Greece, meat consumption is higher than average but rates of heart disease are low there as well. Finally, in Spain, an
increase in meat eating (in conjunction with a reduction in sugar and high carbohydrate intake) led to a decrease in heart
"The belief that meat, in particular red meat, contributes to cancer is, like heart disease, a popular idea that is not
supported by the facts. Although it is true that some studies have shown a connection between meat eating and some
types of cancer (38), its important to look at the studies carefully to determine what kind of meat is being discussed, as
well as the preparation methods used. Since we only have one word for 'meat' in English, it is often difficult to know
which 'meat' is under discussion in a study unless the authors of the study specifically say so.
"The study which began the meat=cancer theory was done by Dr. Ernst Wynder in the 1970s. Wynder claimed that there was a
direct, causal connection between animal fat intake and incidence of colon cancer (39). Actually, his data on 'animal fats'
were really on vegetable fats (40). In other words, the meat=cancer theory is based on a phony study.
"If one looks closely at the research, however, one quickly sees that it is processed meats like cold cuts and sausages that
are usually implicated in cancer causation (41) and not meat per se. Furthermore, cooking methods seem to play a part in
whether or not a meat becomes carcinogenic (42). In other words, it is the added chemicals to the meat and the chosen
cooking method that are at fault and not the meat itself.
"In the end, although sometimes a connection between meat and cancer is found, the actual mechanism of how it happens has
eluded scientists (43). This means that it is likely that other factors besides meat are playing roles in some cases of
cancer. Remember: studies of meat-eating traditional peoples show that they have very little incidence of cancer.
This demonstrates that other factors are at work when cancer appears in a modern meat-eating person. It is not scientifically
fair to single out one dietary factor in placing blame, while ignoring other more likely candidates.
"It should be noted here that Seventh Day Adventists are often studied in population analyses to prove that a vegetarian diet
is healthier and is associated with a lower risk for cancer. While it is true that most members of this Christian
denomination do not eat meat, they also do not smoke or drink alcohol, coffee or tea, all of which are likely factors in
promoting cancer (44).
"The Mormons are a religious group often overlooked in vegetarian studies. Although their Church urges moderation,
Mormons do not abstain from meat. As with the Adventists, Mormons also avoid tobacco, alcohol, and caffeine.
Despite being meat eaters, a study of Utah Mormons showed they had a 22% lower rate for cancer in general and a 34% lower mortality for
colon cancer than the US average (45). A study of Puerto Ricans, who eat large amounts of fatty pork,
nevertheless revealed very low rates of colon and breast cancer (46). Similar results can be adduced to demonstrate that
meat and animal fat consumption do not correlate with cancer (47). Obviously, other
factors are at work.
"It is usually claimed that vegetarians have lower cancer rates than meat-eaters, but a 1994 study of vegetarian California
Seventh Day Adventists showed that, while they did have lower rates for some cancers (e.g., breast and lung), they had
higher rates for several others (Hodgkin's disease, malignant melanoma, brain, skin, uterine, prostate, endometrial,
cervical and ovarian), some quite significantly. In that study the authors actually admitted that:
Meat consumption, however, was not associated with a higher [cancer] risk.
No significant association between breast cancer and a high consumption of animal fats or animal products in general was
"Further, it is usually claimed that a diet rich in plant foods like whole grains and legumes will reduce one's risks for
cancer, but research going back to the last century demonstrates that carbohydrate-based diets are the prime dietary
instigators of cancer, not diets based on minimally processed animal foods (49).
"The mainstream health and vegetarian media have done such an effective job of 'beef bashing,' that most people think there
is nothing healthful about meat, especially red meat. In reality, however, animal flesh foods like beef and lamb are
excellent sources of a variety of nutrients as any food/nutrient table will show. Nutrients like vitamins A, D, several of
the B-complex, essential fatty acids (in small amounts), magnesium, zinc, phosphorous, potassium, iron, taurine, and
selenium are abundant in beef, lamb, pork, fish and shellfish, and poultry. Nutritional factors like coenzyme Q10, carnitine,
and alpha-lipoic acid are also present. Some of these nutrients are only found in animal foods--plants do not supply them."4
(You can read the entire article by clicking on the following link: The Myths of Vegetarianism)
Dr. Joel Fuhrman reports on his web site that, "following a strict vegetarian diet is not as important as eating a diet rich in fruits and vegetables." He goes on to report some of the dangers of a vegan diet, particularly among those who do not eat a well-balanced vegan diet. Potential problems include B12 deficiency, Vitamin D deficiency, low "levels of calcium, iron, zinc, and protein", and "the increased risk of hemorrhagic (vessel rupture leading to bleeding) stroke."5
3. Does eating meat ruin your spiritual life? - Perhaps the most controversial of all the statements made by Ellen White
are those in which she says eating meat is detrimental to a person's spiritual growth. Let us compare this with what the
Jesus made it plain that what we put in our stomachs does not defile us in any way:
"Don't you understand either?" he asked. "Can't you see that what you eat won't defile you?
Food doesn't come in contact with your heart, but only passes through the stomach and then comes out again."
(By saying this, he showed that every kind of food is acceptable.) (Mark 7:18-19 NLT)
Jesus had every opportunity to tell the disciples about the dangers of eating meat, and how it would destroy their
physical, mental, and spiritual health. But He did not. Instead, Mark tells us that Christ declared all foods "acceptable."
Let us examine eight examples in the Scripture to determine if anyone else had their spiritual life impaired by eating meat.
#1 - When three beings, in the form of men, including the Lord Himself, visited Abraham at Hain Mamre, Abraham served
them butter, milk, and flesh meat:
And he took butter, and milk, and the calf which he had dressed, and set [it] before them; and he stood by them under
the tree, and they did eat.
Ellen White insisted that her followers needed to "dispense with flesh food" in order to have the "companionship of heavenly angels,"
and yet here we find heavenly beings eating "flesh food" with Abraham. This would have been the ideal opportunity for
the Lord and the angels to rebuke Abraham for serving food that would arouse their "animal passions," but nothing was said.
#2 - Notice that God instructed Aaron and the Levitical priesthood to eat meat:
And Aaron and his sons shall eat the flesh of the ram... (Ex. 29:32)
And the remnant of the meat offering [shall be] Aaron's and his sons... (Lev. 2:3)
And that which is left of the meat offering [shall be] Aaron's and his sons... (Lev. 2:10)
And all the meat offering that is baken in the oven, and all that is dressed in the fryingpan, and in the pan, shall be the priest's that offereth it. (Lev. 7:9)
And Moses spake unto Aaron, and unto Eleazar and unto Ithamar, his sons that were left, Take the meat offering that remaineth of the offerings of the LORD made by fire, and eat it without leaven beside the altar... (Lev. 10:12)
But the firstling of a cow, or the firstling of a sheep, or the firstling of a goat...the flesh of them shall be thine... (Num. 18:17,18)
And this shall be the priest's due from the people, from them that offer a sacrifice, whether [it be] ox or sheep; and they shall give unto the priest the shoulder, and the two cheeks, and the maw. (Deut. 18:3)
Why did God instruct His holy priesthood to eat foods that would diminish their moral strength? Surely God could have
commanded them to eat potatoes and bananas instead of meat!
#3 - Moses gave specific laws to the Israelites permitting them to eat wild animals that entered their towns:
These are the statutes and judgments which you shall be careful to observe in the land which the Lord God of your fathers
is giving you to possess...you may slaughter and eat meat within all your gates, whatever your heart desires,
according to the blessing of the Lord your God which He has given you;
the unclean and the clean may eat of it, of the gazelle and the deer alike.
(Deut. 12:1,15 NKJV)
Notice that the animals are called a "blessing of the Lord." How could flesh meat be described as a "blessing" if it
destroyed the physical, mental, and spiritual nature of man?
#4 - When Elijah was by the brook Cherith, what diet did God prepare for him?
And the ravens brought him bread and flesh in the morning, and bread and
flesh in the evening... (1 Kings 17:6)
Why would God choose to destroy the physical, mental, and spiritual health of His prophet by feeding him meat? Couldn't
God have just as easily commanded the ravens to bring Elijah carrots and cucumbers?
#5 - Notice what King Solomon served his court:
And Solomon's provision for one day was thirty measures of fine flour, and threescore measures of meal,
Ten fat oxen, and twenty oxen out of the pastures, and an hundred sheep, beside harts, and roebucks, and fallowdeer, and fatted fowl.
(1 Kings 4:22-23)
Isn't it interesting the greatest intellectual giant this world has ever known had an abundant variety of meat served at
his table? How could someone so full of divine wisdom fail to realize that meat "clouds the brain" and "benumbs the intellect?"
#6 - The young Daniel is held up by SDAs as a great example of a vegetarian because he would not eat of the king's table,
but notice what the older Daniel said:
I ate no choice food; no meat or wine touched my lips; and I used no lotions at all until
the three weeks were over. (Dan. 10:3 NIV)
Why would Daniel need to emphasize that he abstained from "meat" for three weeks if it was not his custom to eat meat?
#7 - Mrs. White claimed John the Baptist was a "vegetarian."6 However, the Bible says he ate "locusts" (Matt. 3:4; Mark 1:6).
According to Matthew Henry, "Locusts were a sort of flying insect, very good for food, and allowed as clean (Lev. 11:22); they required little dressing,
and were light, and easy of digestion."7
#8 - As part of the traditional passover ceremony, instituted by God for all Israelites, a lamb was slain and eaten by the people. Jesus participated in this tradition with His disciples:
Jesus said, "I have looked forward to this hour with deep longing, anxious to eat this Passover meal
with you before my suffering begins." (Luke 22:15 NLT)
Not only did Jesus eat meat with His disciples, but he also fed thousands of people fish (Matt. 14:17-19, 15:34-36),
and he also fed His disciples fish after His resurrection (John 21:9). Surely Jesus could have fed the disciples
pancakes and blueberries that morning by the lake, thereby instructing them upon the dangers of eating meat. But He did not.
These eight examples show that eating meat is perfectly appropriate for God's people and does not impair their spiritual well-being one iota.
Bible Truth about Vegetarianism
The Bible truth about vegetarianism is that God never commanded it, or even suggested it, in His Word. If someone
chooses to become a vegetarian for health or humanitarian reasons, there is nothing wrong with that. There may
even be some limited health benefits to certain individuals in so doing. However, there are also health risks for
vegetarians, namely that they will not get an adequate supply of proteins, amino acids, and essential vitamins and
The advantages and disadvantages of a vegetarian diet could be argued endlessly, but the Bible truth is that God
accepts us regardless of our diet, and we should accept one another regardless of whether or not we eat meat:
One man's faith allows him to eat everything, but another man, whose faith is weak, eats only vegetables.
The man who eats everything must not look down on him who does not, and the man who does not eat everything must not
condemn the man who does, for God has accepted him. Who are you to judge someone else's servant? To his own master he
stands or falls. And he will stand, for the Lord is able to make him stand.
(Rom. 14:2-4 NIV)
So don't let anyone condemn you for what you eat or drink... (Col. 2:16 NLT)
The Bible never says anything against vegetarianism, and neither does it ever condemn the eating of clean meats. However, it does forbid Christians from teaching that abstaining from meats will make them holier than others:
In the latter times some shall depart from the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits, and doctrines of devils...
Forbidding to marry, [and commanding] to abstain from meats,
which God hath created to be received with thanksgiving of
them which believe and know the truth. For every creature of God [is] good, and
nothing to be refused,
if it be received with thanksgiving. (1 Tim. 4:1,3,4)
The Bible could not get any plainer than this. One way to identify false teachers is that they teach people to
"abstain from meats." Paul goes further to say that meats should be "received with thanksgiving."
Jesus taught plainly that what goes into the human stomach cannot make one unholy, but what comes out of one's mouth makes one unholy. The Bible plan is for each person to adopt the diet that is best for them and is in accordance with their individual understanding of God's will for their life. No person should judge or condemn another for their dietary choices.
QUESTION: I heard in church that Adventists in America live 13 years longer than average Americans. Doesn't this prove that Ellen White was correct and God is blessing the SDA Church for obeying his prophet?
ANSWER: According to the Adventist Lifestyle Study, Seventh-day Adventists in California do out-live non-Adventists by at least 9 years, but is that due to their vegetarianism or to other factors, such as not smoking or drinking coffee? Studies of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints have shown that Mormons live 8 to 11 years longer than the average American. Mormons do not drink coffee, smoke, or drink alcohol, but they do eat a moderate amount of meat. Remember, not smoking, not drinking alcohol and not drinking coffee were strongly advocated among Adventists by their leader Joseph Bates long before Ellen White had her health reform "vision" or showed any interest in health reform. Therefore, it is uncertain whether the addition of Ellen White's health reform "visions" had any real impact on the longevity of Seventh-day Adventists.
If you examine the evidence closely, you will find that the bulk of Adventist longevity is due to activities that all religious people practice. For example, recent studies have found:
- Americans can expect to live nearly 7 years longer if they attend religious services at least once a week
- Prayer and Bible study help people live healthier and longer lives
- Non-smokers live 3 years longer than smokers
If you count the years of extended life from the above points, and combine that with moderation in drinking alcohol, as nearly all Christian denominations advise, then this significantly closes the gap between Seventh-day Adventists and Christians of other denominations. In fact, if you are a practicing Christian who abstains from tobacco, drinks in moderation, and exercises regularly, then you should not expect to live any longer by adopting the Seventh-day Adventist lifestyle. Furthermore, you will most likely enjoy life a whole lot more without all the burdensome restrictions of the "Seventh-day Adventist lifestyle."
Dr. Byrnes (in the same article quoted earlier on this page) informs us:
"There is no proof that a healthy vegetarian diet, when compared to a healthy omnivorous diet, will result in a longer life. ... It is usually claimed that meat-eating peoples have a short lifespan, but the Aborigines of Australia, who traditionally eat a diet rich in animal products, are known for their longevity... In his book Nutrition and Physical Degeneration, Dr Price has numerous photographs of elderly native peoples from around the world. Explorers such as Vilhjalmur Stefansson reported great longevity among the Innuit (again, before colonisation). Similarly, the people of the Caucasus Mountains live to great ages on a diet of fatty pork and whole raw milk products. The Hunzas, also known for their robust health and longevity, drink substantial portions of goat's milk, which has a higher saturated fat content than cow's milk. In contrast, the largely vegetarian Hindus of southern India have the shortest lifespans in the world, partly because of a lack of food but also because of a distinct lack of animal protein in their diets. ...
"Vegetarians often maintain that a diet of meat and animal fat leads to a premature death. Anthropological data from primitive societies do not support such contentions. Dr Price traveled around the world in the 1920s and 1930s, investigating native diets with regard to endurance and energy levels. Without exception, he found a strong correlation between diets rich in animal fats and robust health and athletic ability. Special foods for Swiss athletes, for example, included bowls of fresh, raw cream. In Africa, Dr Price discovered that groups whose diets were rich in fatty meats and fish, and organ meats like liver, consistently carried off the prizes in athletic contests, and that meat-eating tribes always dominated tribes whose diets were largely vegetarian."
1. Ellen G. White, Counsels on Diet and Foods, p. 481, (1938).
2. Sylvester Graham, A Lecture to Young Men on Chastity, p. 47 (1838).
3. Ibid., p. 147.
4. Stephen Byrnes, ND, PhD, RNCP, "The Myths of Vegetarianism". http://www.westonaprice.org/mythstruths/mtvegetarianism.html. Dr. Byrnes is the author of three books: Overcoming AIDS with Natural Medicine, Digestion to the Max! and Healthy Hearts: Natural Medicine for Your Ticker.
5. Joel Fuhrman, M.D., "What You Need to Know About Vegetarian or Vegan Diets", extracted on Nov. 28, 2011 from http://www.drfuhrman.com/library/article5.aspx.
6. Ellen G. White, Testimonies, vol. 3, p. 62.
7. Matthew Henry, commentary on Matthew 3.