The White Lie!
By Walter T. Rea

Chapter 11: A Matter of Ethics

Historical evidence that leaders knew White was not inspired, but suffered from medical problems... They just forgot to tell the flock!

Much more than one can encompass or digest has been written about Ellen and her "borrowing." Doubtless more will continue to be written as various ones seek to clear their heads a Id hearts of the long, sorry misconceptions. Doors that have been shut for a hundred years or more are now being painfully opened by a different generation. One can hope that enough feet have been put firmly in the doorway to keep the door from being slammed all the way shut again. Some who have written before the 1970s to protest what was taking place seem to have been opposed so successfully that a generation or two of Adventists have been taught fallaciously.' Additional material will be forthcoming as the times demand and as the scholars continue to discover what lies under the surface. Much has been said for many years about the secretiveness of the White Estate and about their extremely stringent policies even for friends of the church who seek the information that leads to knowledge of truth. The inability to have access to source material without smuggling it out naturally intensifies suspicion. But times have changed since 1844. Now the only doors that remain really closed are the ones that lead to the minds of today's communicants, who in blind loyalty go on parroting the "party line," zealots without regard for accuracy or honesty. These doors are the hardest to open, for they have been closed by those persons whom they felt they had a right to trust-whose minds, in turn, have been closed by fear to think or investigate, lest the curse of the supersalesmen come down upon them. Even worse are those who fear that God, who is ever on trial in such matters, wants the blind to lead the blind through the desert wasteland.

Studies have established certain points that are irrefutable. Even Robert Olson, of the White Estate, has conceded as much, in his letter of September 4, 1980:

Let me assure you . . that we are doing our best to do what we believe needs to be done. The nineteen­page paper you referred to on Ellen White's use of uninspired sources has been published in the Australian Division Union paper. It has also been translated into German and published for all of our ministers in West Germany. A somewhat modified version of the article was published In the new youth Sabbath School quarterly which is issued currently m Lincoln, Nebraska. We have also made this article available to our conference presidents around the circle and have presented the matter in many of workers' meetings both here and abroad However, we feel that this is simply a preliminary step. The General conference Committee has voted to ask one of our professors from Andrews University to engage in a two­year study in which the writings of Ellen White on the life of Christ are to be investigated in depth, especially on the question of literary borrowing. 2

Could this be the same Robert Olson who stood before an audience at Loma Linda less than two years before and said that there was really nothing to all this discussion going on about Ellen and her writings 3 On the other hand, Olson's statement cannot be considered to mean there is a new open­door policy at the White Estate office. A later letter of that year (October 1980) reveals how closed that White Estate vault still is: "Elder does not look at these matters as I think he should." 4 And his words to the in­house group two years earlier were not idle when he said that the one chosen to do the work would ...cost the White Estate nothing for Jim's [Cox] time, and I do believe that we can stay close enough to him so that the conclusions he arrives at would be essentially the same as the conclusions we would come to were we doing the work ourselves. We could ask Jim to make a report every two or three weeks to a committee. 5

But the press is stronger than the sword. Olson's sword has been dulled m combat with the press, even if some of that press was only the quick­copy machine. Members in at least some parts of the world have been becoming aware for themselves for the first time of the magnitude of the problem with Ellen's illegitimate use of the work of predecessors and of the fact that some questions have to be answered. Worldwide, many Adventists are no longer willing to accept the unethical answers that their super salesmen have given them

The ethical problems can be summed up by reviewing the evidence that a good deal of research in recent years has revealed substantial information about Ellen's life and writing.

1. It is now clear that Ellen was not original in her writing; her material was taken from other sources--on all subjects, In all areas, in all books. 6

2. It is likewise clear that Ellen was indeed substantially influenced by her surroundings, her associates, and other religious writers from whom she drew (copying, paraphrasing, and the like).7

3. The one disclaimer that had been made known in a general way (that the introductions of the 1888 and 1911 editions of The Great Controversy) does not truthfully deal with the issue. Why would anyone quote from another's published work without intending to cite that person as his authority?

4. It has now been conceded that Ellen had much more help than the church members had been led to believe and that her helpers did indeed have great latitude in selecting and arranging material and m final editing. 8 Furthermore, in addition to the editorial assistants who are fairly well known-Marian Davis, Clarence C. Crisler, Dores E. Robinson, Mary Steward, Fannie Bolton, Mary H. Crisler, Sarah Peck, Maggie Hare, and H. Camden Lacey-a later release by Willie White calls attention to others less well known about: "From 1860 and onward, some of her manuscripts for publication, and some of her testimonies, were copied by members of her family." 9 Then he named such copyists as Lucinda Abbey Hall, Adelia Patten Van Horn, Anna Driscoll Loughborough, Addie Howe Cogshall, Annie Hale Royce, Emma Sturgis Prescott, Mary Clough Watson, and Mrs. J. L. Ings. There may well have been others.

5. Ellen did not have the last word on what was written and did not always have the final say on what was published. 10 Even could it be proved that she was "always in control," that would not settle the ethical questions.

6. It cannot be maintained either in good scholarship or in good conscience that "verbal inspiration" was the problem with those who saw and understood what was going on. They knew what was going on and did not accept the writings as from God and thus did not condone what was being done. 11

7. If and when anyone expressed convictions about these matters, that person was served with a personal condemnatory testimony, or asked to leave, or, even worse, labeled as an enemy of the church and truth. 12

8. Not all the early fathers and church workers accepted or believed that everything Ellen wrote was from God and was always inspired. Her authority was not the final authority with them. 13

9. Ellen herself well knew what was being done, had a part in it all along, and encouraged others who worked for her to do the same and say nothing about it. 14

This last statement (item 9) seems to create the greatest ethical problem for the Adventist Church at the present time. Robert Olson has Judged that one person's approach "is to lead his listeners to believe that Ellen White was dishonest and deceptive." 15 Because of the sensitive nature of this charge, it is necessary to bring knowledgeable witnesses to the stand to testify what they saw or said.

No one now defending Ellen and her acts was living at the time of her activity. Not even Grandson Arthur can be an acceptable witness. His grandmother was past eighty years of age when he was born. Whatever work she had done for the church had been done without Arthur's observation or knowledge. Certainly Ronald D. Graybill and Robert W. Olson (both of the White Estate offices) were not present and therefore must be disqualified as reliable witnesses. Furthermore, all three have built­in biases and conflict of interest. Their positions, reputations, and monetary compensation make them unacceptable in any court of arbitration as firsthand or dependable witnesses. The only advantage they may have that others of our times do not have is their access to material and information that they refuse to divulge.

But there were witnesses who did see and did express themselves They need to have their day in court, if only in incomplete form.

Who's who? In the White Plagiarism scandal:

Here is what they thought about White's inspiration:

1. John N. Andrews.

One of the church founders; studious writer; editor. A contemporary of Ellen White's, her friend and helper. Some of his ideas and words were included in her printed material as she formulated her theology.

J. N. Andrews, who at the time was in Battle Creek, was much interested.

After one of the meetings he told her some of the things she had said were much like a book he had read. Then he asked if she had read Paradise Lost .... A few days later Elder Andrews came to the home with a copy Paradise Lost and offered it to her. 16

2. Uriah Smith.

Editor of the Review during Ellen White's time, a personal friend of the Whites; a writer whose material found its way into Ellen's theology in several of her books.

It seems to me that the testimonies, practically, have come into that shape t at It IS not of any use to try to defend the enormous claims that are now

3. George B. Starr.

Evangelist, minister, teacher, administrator. He accompanied Ellen White to Australia and always defended her writings and reputation.

put forth for them .... If all the brethren were willing to investigate this matter candidly and broadly, I believe some consistent common ground for all to stand upon could be found. But some, of the rule or rum spirit, are so dogmatical and stubborn that I suppose that any effort m that direction would only lead to a rupture of the body."' 17

On leaving my room I passed Sister White's doorway, and the door being ajar, she saw me and called me into her room, saying, "I am m trouble, Brother Starr, and would like to talk with you." I asked her what was the nature of her trouble, and she replied, "My writings, Fannie Bolton." 18

4. Fannie Bolton.

Editorial assistant to Ellen White in Australia. Often praised for her editorial and writing ability. Discharged by Ellen.

I tried for years to harmonize what seemed to me inconsistency in the work with a worldly literary maxim that requires an author to acknowledge his editors and give credit to all works from which he quotes. In contending that Sr. White was not open about this matter, I supposed myself standing for a principle of ordinary justice and literary honesty, and looked upon myself as a martyr for truth's sake. 19

5. Merritt G. Kellogg.

Friend of the Whites; half brother of John Harvey Kellogg; probably the first Adventist to reach California and hold evangelistic meetings.

In 1894 [in Australia] Mrs. White told me that in writing the Great Controversy, and preparing it for the press, Marian Davis and Fanny Bolton had charge of it. She further told me that these girls were responsible for certain things

which went into that book in the shape which they did.... Mrs. White did not tell me just what wrong was committed by the girls. I suppose the reason why she spoke to me on the subject was because of the tact that Fanny Bolton had come to me.... I told her just what Fanny had told me.... "Now, ' said Sister White with some warmth, "Fanny Bolton shall never write another line for me...." From that day to this my eyes have been open.

6. John Harvey Kellogg.

Surgeon, inventor, health advocate, writer, lecturer, teacher, businessman. Long­time personal friend of the Whites. I do not believe in her infallibility and never did. I told her eight years ago to her face that some of the things she has sent to me as testimonies were not the truth, that they were not in harmony with the facts, and she herself found it out. I have a letter from her in which she explains how she came to send me some things.... I know people go to Sister White with some plan or scheme they want to carry through under her endorsement of It and stand up and say, "The Lord has spoken," and I know that is fraud, that that is taking unfair advantage of people's minds and of people's consciences... and l have no sympathy with that thing, and I toed W. C. White so long ago. 21

7. Mary Clough.

Niece; daughter of Ellen White's sister Caroline. Although not herself an Adventist, for a time literary assistant, publicity agent, and helper with the White writings. Discharged by Ellen. [George B. Starr quoting Ellen White] I want to tell you of a vision I had about 2:00 o'clock this morning.... There appeared a chariot of gold and horses of silver above me, and Jesus, in royal majesty' was seated in the chariot. I was greatly impressed with the glory of this vision .... Then there came the words rolling down over the clouds from the chariot from the lips of Jesus, "Fannie Bolton is your adversary! . . ." I had this same vision about seven years ago, when my niece, Mary Clough, was on my writings. 22

8. George W. Amadon.

Served fifty years in various capacities in the Review and Herald Publishing Association, and in the church, in three cities. Friend of the Whites.

I knew a large share of it ["How to Live"] was borrowed .... [With reference to "Sketches from the Life of Paul"] I said that Sister White never writes the prefaces to her books; I happen to know that others write them; and I said it ad been stated formally m the preface of the book that such things had been taken from other works, that what had been copied verbatim ought to have been in quotation marks, or set in finer type, or in foot­notes or something of the sort the way printers generally do.... She never reads the proof .... Sister White never in the Office sat down and read proofs properly .... You know in the days of the Elder James White] how her writings were handled just as well as I do. 23

9. Arthur G. Daniels.

Minister, administrator; noted as one of the strongest leaders of the Adventist Church; president of the General Conference 1901-22. Close personal friend of the Whites; in Australia.

Now you know something about that little book, "The Life of Paul." You know the difficulty we got into about that. We could never claim inspiration In the whole thought and makeup of the book, because it has been thrown aside because It was badly put together. Credits were not given to the proper authorities, and some of that crept into "The Great Controversy "-the lack of credits.... Personally that has never shaken my faith, but there are men who have been greatly hurt by it, and I think it is because they claimed too much for these writings. 24

10. Benjamin L. House.

College professor of religion; present at the 19 Bible Conference.

But such books as "Sketches [from] the Life of Paul," "Desire of Ages," and "Great Controversy," were composed differently, it seems to me, even by her secretaries than the nine volumes of the Testimonies. 25

11. W. W. Prescott.

One of Adventism's great educators; biblical scholar; Review editor; founder of two colleges, president of three. Helped in amending and contributing to Ellen White's book material. It seems to me that a large responsibility rests upon those of us who know that there are serious errors m our authorize books and yet make no special effort to correct them. The people and our average ministers trust us to furnish them with reliable statements, and they use our books as sufficient authority in their sermons, but we let them go on year after year asserting things which we know to be untrue.... It seems to me that what amounts to deception, though probably not intentional, has been practiced in making some of her books, and that no serious effort has been made to disabuse the minds of the people. 26

12. Willard A. Colcord.

Minister, editor, religious liberty secretary of the General Conference.

This making use of so much matter written by others, in Sister White's writings, without quotes or credits, has gotten her and her writings into quite a lot of trouble. One of the chief objects in the late revision of 'Great Controversy" was to fix up matters of this kind; and one of the chief reasons why "Sketches from the Life of Paul" was never republished was because of serious defects in it on this ground. 27

13. H. Camden Lacey.

Professor of Bible and biblical languages at five Adventist colleges; minister. Personal friend of the Whites.

Sr. Marian Davis was entrusted with the preparation of "Desire of Ages" and . . she gathered her material from every available source..:. She was greatly worried about finding material suitable for the first chapter (and other chapters too for that matter) and I did what I could to help her; and I have good reason to believe that she also appealed to Professor Prescott frequently for similar aid, and got it too in far richer and more abundant measure than I could render.

14. Healdsburg Ministerial Association.

A report in the local town paper of their comparison study of five books from which they determined Ellen White had copied; March 20,1889. Elder Heale would have the Committee believe that she is not a reading woman. And also ask them to believe that the historical facts and even the quotations are given to her in vision without depending on the ordinary sources of information.... Would not any literary critic, Judging from the quotations advanced and a comparison of the passages indicated, conclude that Mrs. White in writing her "Great Controversy,' vol. iv, had before her the open books and from them took both ideas and words? 29

15. James White.

One of the founders and organizers of the Seventh­day Adventist Church. Teacher, editor, businessman, publisher, minister, administrator. Husband of Ellen. Every Christian is therefore in duty bound to take the Bible as a perfect rule of faith and duty. He should pray fervently to be aided by the Holy Spirit in searching the Scriptures for the whole truth, and for his whole duty. He is not at liberty to turn from them to learn his duty through any of the if's. We say that the very moment he does, he places the gifts in a wrong place and takes an extremely dangerous position. The Word should be in front and the eye of the church should be placed upon it, as the rule to walk by and the fountain of wisdom, from which to learn duty in "all good works." 38

16. Ellen Gould White.

The copier and compiler of all the vaunted 25 million words put out in her name. The notice given in the Review of 24 June 1858 of her first serious attempt at a book announced that it was "a sketch of her views of the great controversy between Christ and his angels, and the Devil and his angels."31 A few weeks later the book was advertised for sale, by "J. W.," announced as not of "divine origin and authority but as a sketch of Mrs. White's views." Of the second volume two years later, she wrote:

Having borne my testimony, and scattered several books containing my visions, in the Eastern, Middle, and Western States, and formed many happy acquaintances, I have felt it my duty to give my friends and to the world a sketch or my Christian experience, visions, and labors in connection with the rise and progress of the third angel's message.

In preparing the following pages, I have labored under great disadvantages as I have d to depend m many instances, on memory, having kept no journal till within a few years. In several instances I have sent the manuscripts to friends who were present when the circumstances related occurred ,for their examination before they were put in print. I have taken great care, and have spent much time, m endeavoring to state the simple facts as correctly as possible.

I have, however, been much assisted in arriving at dates by the many letters which I wrote to Bro. S. Howland and family, of Topsham, Me. As they for the period of five years had the care of my Henry, I felt it my duty to write to them often, and give them my experience, my joys' trials, and victories. In many Instances I have copied from these letters. [Italics a e .]

Such is the testimony of some of those around the prophet who saw, said they saw, and in most cases were separated after they said it.

Testimony will not be solicited from the long list of those who knew her well but were rejected and ejected from the cause because of what they knew. Among these are Crosier, March, the people in the "Iowa movement, the "Wisconsin fanaticism," Dudley M. Canright, the Ballengers, Alonzo T. Jones, Louis R. Conradi, George B. Thompson, and scores of others.32 Their testimony would be strong against Ellen's " ions" and "inspiration," but they are not allowed to speak because they left, or were driven from, the church because of their knowledge and willingness to share that knowledge. Surely it is true, as one union conference president remarked at Glacier View in 1980, that most of the "bright lights" of the movement have been driven out of the church over the authority of Ellen White. 33

Other testimony could be gathered from such as William S. Peterson, Jonathan M. Butler, Ronald L. Numbers, and the other Adventist scholars of note in modern times who have searched with diligence to discover truth and separate it from fantasy. Their voices are almost always muted by the hysteria of those who do not wish to see or who will not allow others to see. The findings of the Don McAdamses and the Roy Graybills might lend preponderance to the mounting evidence of those who see-but their material and efforts have been impounded by the White Estate under one guise or another in the name of religion. Only when religious freedom can be at last won and academic freedom can be at last exercised within the church will the members be assured that truth is not forever on the scaffold and wrong forever on the throne for Adventism.

This is not to say that all the names listed, plus others not listed, believe that Ellen White was a fraud or that she deliberately, consciously each time she wrote, sought to deceive. It does say, however, that the human nature and the human method of her work were under scrutiny from the beginning and that honest people with honest questions often have not received honest answers.

Those who accept with reasonableness the facts of Ellen's unacknowledged use of the work of others readily recognize the presence of an ethical problem. Those who excuse her for her unacknowledged use of the work of others have interesting, but different, explanations as to the ethical problem. From those who see no ethical problem to concern themselves about has come only flat denial-as though the "2.6 percent" of Cottrell's study (of only limited scope as far as Ellen's overall work) is sufficient excuse.

An attempt must be made to separate, if possible, each attitude and defense, and to lay that defense alongside some yardstick of morality or ethical behavior to see how Ellen and her helpers measure up.

1. To those who do not see, or do not wish to see, that Ellen copied anything (or if she did, it was so minimal as to raise little or no question), Jack W. Provonsha, professor of ethics at Loma Linda University,seems to be speaking in one of his papers:

The issue of Ellen White's alleged literary dependency has now been fairly well laid out on our collective table. Most informed Adventists now have at least some awareness of her extensive use of quotations, parallels, and paraphrases and the general, formal structural similarities in her writings to books with which she and her editorial assistants are known to have been familiar....

The few who have known of its wide extent have apparently been reluctant to share that information with rank and file church members presumably out of concern lest this weaken Ellen White's position of authority in the church. This reluctance continues to be expressed as an attempt to minimize the quantity of dependency

This effort is understandable but misplaced It may also prove to be counterproductive in the end. If the issue had been dealt with candidly from the beginning, we might now be spared what is and will continue to be a wrenching experience for many sincere church members. 34

But there will always be those who do not wish to see and will try to convince others that they should not see either. To this class, the words ascribed to an Arabic sage must apply: "He who knows not, and knows not that he knows not, is a fool. Shun him."

2. Those who do see, but cannot bring themselves to believe that God would allow Ellen to do something that was unethical or wrong, justify what she did by saying that others before her had done what she did; therefore it must be acceptable. Perhaps Robert Brinsmead gives as clear an answer to this type of reasoning as anyone:

It is true that there is evidence of literary borrowing by different biblical authors. But in such cases they used material that was the heritage and common property of the convenantal community. It was not private property, and there was no pretense of originality. With Mrs. White, however, the circumstances were much different. Without acknowledgment she used the literary product of those outside her own religious community, copyrighted it, and demanded royalties both for herself and her children. Right and wrong are to some extent historically conditioned, but we do not have to surmise the literary ethics demanded in Mrs. White's day. The facts are not ambiguous. She did not conform to acceptable literary practice. 35

To this group, the sage would say, "He who knows, and knows not that he knows, is asleep. Wake him."

3. There are those who would argue that ethics are determined by those around us and that "situation ethics" determined Ellen's conduct and therefore what she did is excusable. For those who rationalize thus, it should be pointed out that, with this type of thinking, anything goes that goes with anything. If where one is at the time is the correct place to be, and whatever the crowd is doing at the time is correct and necessary to do, then one does only what others see fit to do. To its extreme, this reasoning says: If others are going to hell, let's follow them there. Such persons must have know better than to argue that unacknowledged copying from other authors was an acceptable practice in Ellen's day. That argument simply is not true. In a great deal of the matter Ellen copied from, authors gave credit when they used materials of others, and some of them did so elaborately and gladly. Ellen never did. The information coming to light reveals that she could not. For its is obvious that if the church, or Ellen, or her helpers, had honestly revealed from whom and how much they were taking from others, God, their pretended authority, would be exposed as very minor, if not nonexistent, in their program.

To today's supporters of this misplaced ethic­by­majority, the sage might say, "He who knows not, and knows that he knows not, is simple. Teach him."

4. There are those who accept what they see and, like it or not, feel that it should be acknowledged. But they reason that Ellen's conduct is not impugned, inasmuch as God established different standards for prophets. This seems to be the position that Provonsha tends toward. A critic of Provonsha's view wrote him thus:

The above observation leads me to what the draft indicates your central thesis to be. I offer a rephrasing of that thesis, and your positive support of it, in a way which I submit approaches a rephrasing which might be acceptable to the critic of the General Conference's authorized [Glendale] review committee's action, [which] you quote at pages 5 and 6 of the draft. He, and many readers, might well say of the paper that "it takes the position that prophets (and other inspired writers) are so different from the rest of us that they are not bound by traditional concepts of honesty, and they are not dishonest if they copy without giving credit, and even deny their dependency on others, and though 'mere ordinary people' would be liars and frauds if they performed the acts in question those folks are not at fault because of their different status. 36

It is not likely that everyone would be able to follow Provonsha into his world of ethical philosophy and come up with his pat answer to the problem. Perhaps, too, Provonsha did not have fully available to his thinking all the facts and ramifications necessary to complete a picture of seventy years of deception, for his paper does not deal with the ethics of those who helped Ellen continue with the white lie throughout her whole life.

5. There are other shades of meaning that come to the minds of numerous persons who individually wrestle with the ethical problem as they become progressively aware of more facts. Perhaps one aspect that needs serious consideration is a term that injurisprudence is called "diminished capacity."

White suffered from medical problems:

Ellen's childhood injury and the resulting physical problems are well known and well documented. Beginning with that accident and following through adolescence and middle life, she was subject to physical seizures" that often accompanied what her followers came to call her open visions. At times we are told that she was unconscious of anything around her though at times she retained control of her movements. It is often boasted by the church that she started with a weak untrained mind and an emaciated, disfigured body-the weakest of the weak." At least five times it is recorded that she was stricken with "paralysis" and that many times she felt that she was about to die; often she was unconscious for extended periods of time. 37 Under these physical conditions especially during her early years, her mind was often in the same condition as her body, at times in the quicksand of despair and at times on the mountaintop of glory.

This mental and physical state was noticed early in Ellen's experience A remarkable testimony has been left on record concerning her condition and her recognition of it, as early as 1865 later published in 1877. Because of the sensitive nature of the information it is best to reproduce several paragraphs of the pages that deal with it.

When giving to a Conference at Pilot Grove in 1865, an account of her visit at Dr. Jackson's Health Institute, she stated that the doctor, upon a medical examination, pronounced her a subject of Hysteria. Now to those who have confidence in Dr. Jackson's skill as a physician, this declaration of his furnishes a clue to her supposed divine inspiration. According to medical authorities hysteria is a real disease, but of a very peculiar type, affecting not only the body, but also the mind; producing phenomena of a very marked though much varied character, the disease acting upon different persons and temperaments, and thus producing varied results.

When Dr. Wm. Russell, then of the Battle Creek Health Institute, wrote to us expressing his doubts as to the divine inspiration of the visions, and asking for the evidence we had on that subject, we cheerfully complied with his request, sent him the published works, and also a brief synopsis of the work we now present to the public. We also called his attention to Dr Jackson's medical opinion in Mrs. White's case, and solicited his also for publication in the book. To this he replied, July 12th, 1869, that he had made up his mind some time in the past, "that Mrs. White's visions were the result of diseased organization or condition of the brain or nervous system." Here then we have the testimony of two medical gentlemen, in whose skill as physicians Mrs. W. and S. D. Adventists generally have confidence, agreeing in their opinion as to her predisposition to a diseased condition of the brain and nervous system.

Bearing these testimonies in mind, let us go back to her first vision and see if we cannot, from the attending circumstances, obtain a reasonable and common sense solution of the phenomena in the case. According to her published works, Mrs. White, at the age of nine years, met with a very serious misfortune in having her nose crushed in by a blow from a stone, producing a permanent disfigurement of the features. Whether this accident was the producing cause of her predisposition to hysteria we do not of course know, but one thing is certain, if it did not originate it, it aggravated, as Dr. Russell describes it, "a diseased organization or condition of the brain and nervous system." This is proved by the fact that for three weeks after the accident she lay in a state of total unconsciousness, the brain being so much in urea as to cause a cessation of its functions for that time.

Elder White also says of her health at the time of her first vision, in Life Incidents, p. 273: "When she had her first vision she was an emaciated invalid, given up by her friends and physicians to die of consumption. She then weighed but eighty pounds. Her nervous system was such that she could not write, and she was dependent on one sitting near her at the table to even pour her drink from the cup to the saucer."

Shortly after her recovery she seems to have turned her attention to religious subjects, with which she became deeply impressed, until at the age of twelve she professed conversion and joined the Methodist church. Her religious experience at that early age was of a peculiar type; at times she would be exalted to the very point of ecstasy, and again depressed to the regions of despair. This unfortunate condition of the mind does not seem to have been caused by surrounding outward circumstances, which were all favorable to her profession of religion, but by pleasant or unpleasant dreams and Impressions.

About this time the Advent doctrine was preached in Portland, Maine, where her father's family resided, and including herself became interested in it, so much so that in 1842 she constantly attended Advent meetings, though still a Methodist. The result of the passing by of the time in 1844 was the division of the Advent people into two portions, one portion falling back on the position that the coming of the Lord was near but admitting that the '43 and '44 movements were mistakes, the others claiming that the Lord had led them out thus far and that the past would be fully justified; the latter class finally going off into the shut door error, asserting that the Bridegroom had come, and that the time for the salvation of sinners and nominal Christians and apostate Adventists was past. In Elder White's Life Incidents, pages 183­191, he gives an interesting account of the shut door history. Mrs. White (at that time Ellen G. Harmon,) was identified with the latter class, who held their meetings at her father's house, showing that she was constantly under the influence of this terrible delusion, the power of which none can properly appreciate but those who witnessed or participated in it. Under these circumstances, and with her diseased organization or condition of the brain and nervous system and predisposition to hysteria, it is no wonder that she had what is called a vision, and that just as might be expected her vision would correspond in the main features with the religious views she entertained, as we have clearly shown in this work.

On this point Eld. White bears another testimony from his Life Incidents, page 272, (published in 1868,) where he says, "She has probably had, during the past twenty­three years between one and two hundred visions. These have been given under almost every variety of circumstance, yet maintaining a wonderful similarity; the most apparent change being that of late years they have grown less frequent and more comprehensive." This is all very natural and reasonable, under the circumstances. As Mrs. White's health has improved the visions have become less frequent. As the mind and its operations are the result of human organization, so a healthier physical constitution would produce a better and a healthier state of mind; and as Mrs. White has improved in health, her brain and nervous system have taken on a more natural condition, and her trance states have been less frequent; and as she has advanced in matters of general information (her early education being almost totally neglected in consequence of her feeble health,) her visions have become more comprehensive-a very natural consequence-which is one of the best evidences of her visions being an emanation of her own mind.

That the phenomena of Mrs. White's visions, suspended animation, and miraculous powers, are the result of a disordered physical and mental organization, the following extract from Dr. George B. Wood's [Practice of Medicine,] p. 721 of Vol. 2, which has fallen under my notice, is corroborative, and corresponds with some of Mrs. White's experience in vision, particularly her rising with a large Bible in her hand, raising it above her need, and pointing to and repeating passages from it. In treating of mental disorders, and explaining the cause and phenomena of trances, he says:

'Ecstasy Is an affection in which, with a loss of consciousness of existing circumstances, and insensibility to impression from without, there is an apparent exaltation of the intellectual or emotional functions, as if the individual were raised into a different nature, or different sphere of existence. The patient appears wrapped up in some engrossing thought or feeling with an expression upon his countenance as of lofty contemplations, or ineffable delight. Voluntary motion is usually suspended, and the patient either lies insensible to external influences, or as in catalepsy, maintains the position in which he may have been attacked. Sometimes, however, the muscles obey the will, and the patient speaks or acts in accordance with his existing impulses. In these cases, the disease borders closely on somnambulsm. The pulse and respiration may be natural, or more or less depressed; the face is usually pale; and the surface of the body is cool. If the pulse is increased in frequency, it is usually more feeble also. The duration of the attack is very uncertain; in some instances not exceeding a few minutes, in others extending to hours or days. Upon recovering from the spell, the patient generally remembers his thoughts and feelings more or less accurately, and sometimes tells of wonderful visions that he has seen of visits to the regions of the blessed, of ravishing harmony and splendor of inexpressible enjoyment of the senses or affections." 38

These astonishing pages reveal some sobering facts that can be verified:

a. An accurate description of Ellen White's mental and physical condition was given in the way that she often stated them.

b. The analysis of her condition was done by qualified medical persons who in some cases were acceptable to the Whites.

c. The observations were made early in her life by persons who knew her lifestyle and observed her firsthand.

d. The story of the shut door, which was kept hidden for over a hundred years, as revealed (and has now been confirmed by the White Estate), Ellen White did indeed believe, teach, and even have a vision that the door was shut for sinners after 1844.

More interesting, perhaps, are the facts that others, some also physicians, had noticed the similarity of her state during her "visions" and had diagnosed her condition similarly. William S. Sadler, friend of the White family, once a true believer and an elder in the church, and later a physician, wrote in 1923:

It is not uncommon for persons in a cataleptic trance to imagine themselves taking trips to other worlds. In fact, the wonderful accounts of their experiences, which they write out after these cataleptic attacks are over, are so unique and marvelous as to serve the basis for founding new sects, cults, and religions. Many strange and unique religious movements have thus been founded and built up. It is an interesting study in psychology to note that these trance mediums always see visions in harmony with their own theological beliefs. For instance, a medium who believed in the natural immortality of the soul, was always led around on her celestial travels by some of her dead and departed friends. One day she changed her religious views-became a "soul sleeper," and ever after that, when having trances, she was piloted about from world to world on her numerous heavenly trips by the angels, no dead or departed friends ever made their appearance in any of her visions after this change in her belief 39

The record of Ellen's visions of other worlds can be verified in Early Writings to see if the information related by Sadler applies to her. He goes on with other interesting observations:

Nearly all these victims of trances and nervous catalepsy, sooner or later come to believe themselves to be messengers of God and prophets of Heaven; and no doubt most of them are sincere in their belief. Not understanding the physiology and psychology of their afflictions, they sincerely come to look upon their peculiar mental experiences as something supernatural while their followers blindly believe anything they teach because of the supposed divine character of these so­called revelations. 40
Sadler then goes on to corroborate what the doctors of the 1860s and 1870s had detected:
Another most interesting phenomenon I have noticed in connection with trance mediums, who, as previously remarked, are in the majority of cases women, is that these trance or cataleptic phenomena which In some respects are very similar to attacks of major hysteria-only carried out still further -I say, it has been my experience that they usually make their appearance after adolescence has been established, and in no case which have observed, or of which I have known, have these phenomena ever survived the appearance of the menopause. The character of the phenomena associated with these female prophets or trance mediums is always modified by the appearance of the "'change of life'" 41

Again, it is interesting to notice that what the doctor stated is what happened in Ellen's case. She stopped having "open visions" around the time of life that the menopause occurs 42 It is likewise of interest to note that cessation of her visions coincided with the death of James White, her husband.

A later writer has picked up the physical theme in his doctoral dissertation written in 1932:

There is not the slightest evidence that she at any time in this condition learned a single thing that was not well known before by her associates. While the writer would not go so far as to say that she was "mesmerized" by her husband, he [the writer is fully convinced that the content of her early "visions" was almost entirely determined by the problem he James White] was interested in and devoting his time to, at the time of the manifestation. . . . Later on, after his death, her gracious approval was the object most to be desired among a certain type of Teacher and office holder who used all sorts of methods and devices to secure her support for his enterprises.

When White was using every possible means to bring about organization, his wife "saw" that it was God's plan; when he was brought under suspicion in the operation of the printing plant, she was shown that this was not pleasing to God. When he by pen and voice was urging "systematic benevolence" [regular financial giving to the church] she had a "vision" supporting It. At the time he was engaged in the writing of health pamphlets-she was shown her "great vision" on health reform. This list might be continued with a substitution of favorite leaders, for her husband, until her death 43

Linden, in 1978, reviewed the observations and theories of psychologists and psychiatrists of the mid­19OOs seeking clues as to the causative factors of visionary phenomena. Both psychological and physical factors were seen as necessary to be taken into consideration 44 Perhaps the final and most satisfying answers about Ellen White could be given for the white lie if the White Estate would release the details of her medical history from beginning to end.

Another writer has discovered a different type of reasoning for the problem of Ellen's copying without giving credit, as well as her belief in her own "visionary originality." M. Ronald Deutsch (The New Nuts Among the Berrzes) relates in his chapter entitled "The Battles of Battle Creek" how Charles E. Stewart wrote Mrs. White in reply to her public statement that she "was directed by the Lord" to invite those with "perplexities . . . regarding the testimonies" to "place upon paper" their "objectives and criticisms," and she would answer them. Friends of Stewart published his lengthy letter (which included copies of additional correspondence from and to others) as a pamphlet in October 1907-after five months had elapsed without a response from Ellen White. The preface of the pamphlet stated that he had received a properly signed registration receipt but no answer.

Deutsch quotes the following opinion from his book:

I believe she is a victim of auto­hypnotism. She has actually hypnotized herself into believing that these visions are genuine. I don't think she willingly sets out to deceive-she's gotten into the visionary habit-but I do blame those who foist upon the people a scheme which is nothing more or less than a gross fraud 45

The year 1907 was a long time ago. The matter of Ellen's health problems and the concerns of the doctors of her day might have been forgotten if these questions didn't keep coming up from time to time. As recently as 1981 an article appeared in the Toronto Star of May 23:

A rock that hit the forehead of a founder of the Seventh Day Adventist Church, Ellen Gould White, when she was 9, almost certainly accounts for her visions, which are the basis of the church's doctrine, two doctors say.

The blow caused a form of epilepsy, Dr. Delbert Hodder and Dr. Gregory Holmes of Connecticut said, in an interview. They were in Toronto to describe their findings to the American Academy of Neurology meeting at the Sheraton Centre recently....

Hodder an Adventist, says the report by him and Holmes (who is not an Adventist might heal the rift in the church.

"They've been looking at it in a theological way," he said, but his research shows "she can be explained medically." 46

To many it might seem that the medical argument is the best way to account for the ethical question raised by her deception, although it would not justify those who, obviously knowing of her condition (and thus her weaknesses), continued to help her expand the white lie. Also it would generate some degree of sympathy for Ellen's actions-on the basis of diminished capacity alone. Likewise it would help to explain the many inconsistencies in her "visions" that the church has had to deal with or excuse or cover over through the years.

It may be that the last line of the words of the Arabic sage apply in this view of the ethical problem: "He who knows, and knows that he knows, is wise. Follow him."

Appendix Chapter 7 Exhibit

The Spirit of Prophecy, Vol. 3, E. G. White 1878 The Life and Epistles of the Apostle Paul Conybeare & Howson 1852
[295]  Saul, who had distinguished himself as a zealous opponent...took a leading part against Stephen... He brought the weight of eloquence and the logic of the Rabbis to bear. [72]    Saul of Tarsus, already distinguished by his zeal...bore a leading part in the all the energy of vigorous manhood...and...logic of the rabbis.
[295] He believed in the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and was fully established in regard to the privileges of the Jews; but his faith was broad, and he knew the time had come when the true believers should worship not alone in temples made with hands; but, throughout the world, men might worship God in Spirit and in truth. [73]    Not doubting the divinity of the Mosaic economy, and not faithless to the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, he yet saw that the time was coming — yea, then was — when the “true worshippers” should worship him not in the temple only or in any one sacred spot, but everywhere throughout the earth, in spirit and in truth.
[296]  As Stephen stood face to face with his judges, to answer to the crime of blasphemy, a holy radiance shone upon his countenance. “And all...saw his face as it had been the face of an angel.” Those who exalted Moses might have seen in the face of the prisoner the same holy, light which radiated the face of that ancient prophet. The shekinah was a spectacle which they would never again witness in the temple whose glory had departed forever. Many who beheld the lighted countenance of Stephen trembled and veiled their faces. [74]    The eyes of all were fixed upon his countenance...with a supernatural radiance and serenity. ... “They saw his face as it had been that of an angel.” The judges...might have remembered the shining on the face of Moses, and trembled...instead of...the faded glories of the second temple...they might have recognized in the spectacle before them the Shechinah.
[296] Stephen was questioned as to the truth of the charges against him, and took up his defense in a clear thrilling voice that rang through the council hall. He proceeded to rehearse the history of the chosen people of God. ... He showed a thorough knowledge of the Jewish economy, and the spiritual interpretation of it now made manifest through Christ. He began with Abraham, and traced down through history from generation to generation, going through all the national records of Israel to Solomon, taking up the most impressive points to vindicate his case.

He showed that God commended the faith of Abraham, which claimed the land of promise, though he owned no foot of land. He dwelt especially upon Moses.

[74] And then Stephen answered, and his clear voice was heard in the silent council-hall as he went through the history of the chosen people, proving his own deep faith in the sacredness of the Jewish economy, but suggesting here and there that spiritual interpretation of it which had always been the true one, and the truth of which was now to be made manifest to all. He began, with a wise discretion, from the call of Abraham, and travelled historically in his argument through all ... those points which made for his own cause. He showed that God’s blessing rested on the faith of Abraham, though he had “not so much as to set his foot on” in the land of promise.
[297]  He repeated the words of Moses. ... He presented distinctly before them that the sin of Israel was in not heeding the voice of the angel. ... He made plain his own loyalty to God and to the Jewish faith, while he showed that the law in which they trusted for salvation had not been able to preserve Israel from idolatry. ... He referred to the building of the temple by Solomon...and to the words of Isaiah. ... The place of God’s highest worship was in Heaven. [75]    He dwelt in detail on the lawgiver in such a way as to show his own unquestionable orthodoxy...and reminded his hearers that the Law, in which they trusted, had not kept their forefathers from idolatry. ... And so he passed on to the temple...of Solomon...of the prophet Isaiah, who denied that any temple “made with hands” could be the place of God’s highest worship.
[298]  The priest rent his robe. This act was... a signal... In the midst of his sermon, he concluded...breaking away...and turning upon his infuriated judges.

The scene about him faded from his vision; the gates of Heaven were ajar, and Stephen, looking in, saw the glory of the courts of God, and Christ, as if just risen from his throne, standing ready to sustain his servant, who was about to suffer martyrdom for his name.

[76]    The rebuke which Stephen...broke away from...was the signal for a general outburst. ... The scene before his eyes was no longer the council-hall at Jerusalem and the circle of infuriated judges, but he gazed up ... and saw Jesus, in whose righteous cause he was about to die. Here alone he is said to be standing. It is as if (according to Chrysostom’s beautiful thought) he had risen from his throne to succor his persecuted servant and to receive him to himself.
[306]  Of a similar character, though in a different direction, was the zeal of James and John, when they would have called down fire from heaven to consume those who slighted and scorned their Master. [86-7] The zeal which burnt in him was that of James and John before their illumination, when they wished to call down fire from heaven. ...
[307]  The scene was one of the greatest confusion. The companions of Saul were stricken with terror, and almost blinded by the intensity of the light. They heard the voice, but saw no one, and to them all was unintelligible and mysterious. But Saul, lying prostrate upon the ground, understood the words that were spoken, and saw clearly before him the Son of God. [90] The whole scene was evidently one of the utmost confusion, and the accounts are such as to express in the most striking manner the bewilderment and alarm of the travellers.

But while the others were stunned, stupefied, and confused, a clear light broke terribly on the soul of one of those who were prostrated on the ground. A voice him which to the rest was a sound mysterious and indistinct. He heard what they did not hear. ... He heard the voice of the Son of God. ... He saw Jesus, whom he was persecuting. ...

[308]  No doubt entered the mind of Saul that this was the veritable Jesus of Nazareth who spoke to him. [92]   No human instrumentality intervened to throw the slightest doubt upon the reality of the communication between Christ himself and the apostle. ...
[310]  How different from what he had anticipated was his entrance into that city...expecting...applause because of...the great zeal...he had manifested in searching out the believers, to carry them as captives to Jerusalem...and to send them as prisoners.

[311]  But how changed was the scene from that which he had anticipated! ... Instead...he was himself virtually a prisoner...dependent upon the guidance of his companions...helpless, and tortured by remorse.

[93]    Thus entered Saul into Damascus — not, as he had expected, to triumph in an enterprise on which his soul was enter into houses and carry off prisoners to Jerusalem — but he passed, himself like a prisoner...led by the hands of others.
[311]  He was in lonely seclusion; he had no communication with the church, for they had been warned of the purpose of his journey to Damascus by the believers in Jerusalem; and they believed that he was acting a part. ...

[312]  Those three days were like three years to the blind and conscience-smitten Jew. He was no novice in the Scriptures, and in his darkness and solitude he recalled the passages which referred to the Messiah, and traced down the prophecies, with a memory sharpened by the conviction that had taken possession of his mind.

[93] He could have no communion with the Christians, for they had been terrified by the news of his approach. ... The recollections of his early years, the passages of the ancient Scriptures which he had never understood — the thought of his own cruelty and violence, — the memory of the last looks of Stephen, — all these crowded into his mind, and made the three days equal to long years of repentance.
[317]  Paul was baptized by Ananias in the river of Damascus. He was then strengthened by food, and immediately began to preach Jesus to the believers in the city. ... He also taught in the synagogues that Jesus...was indeed the Son of God. [95]    He was baptized [in] “the rivers of Damascus. ... His body was strengthened with food....

He “straight away preached in the synagogues” ... that Jesus was “the Son of God.”

[317]  The Jews were thoroughly [95] The Jews were astounded, surprised and confounded by the They knew what he had been at conversion of Paul. They were aware Jerusalem. They knew why he had of his position at Jerusalem, and come to Damascus. And now they saw knew what was his principal errand to Damascus, and that he was armed with a commission from the high priest that authorized him to take the prisoners. ... Paul demonstrated to all who heard him that his change of faith was not from impulse nor fanaticism.

[318]  As he labored...his faith grew stronger; his zeal in maintaining that Jesus was the Son of God increased.

[95] The Jews were astounded. They knew what he had been at Jerusalem. They knew why he had come to Damascus. And now they saw him...utterly discarding the “commission of the high priests”...the authority of his journey. [96] Yet it was evident that his conduct was not the result of a wayward and irregular impulse. His convictions never hesitated, his energy grew continually stronger.
[318]  After the Jews had recovered from their surprise at his wonderful conversion and subsequent labors...their astonishment...changed into an intense hatred.

He [Paul] went into Arabia; and there, in comparative solitude, he had ample opportunity for communion with Goa, and for contemplation. He wished to be alone with God, to search his own heart, to deepen his repentance, and to prepare himself by prayer and study. ... He was an apostle, not chosen of men, but chosen of God, and his work was plainly stated to be among the Gentiles.

[96]    The fury of the Jews when they recovered from their first surprise must have been excited to the utmost pitch, and they would soon have received a new commissioner from Jerusalem armed with full powers to supersede and punish one whom they must have regarded as the most faithless of apostates. Saul...went into Arabia. ...

[97]    Either...he went to preach the gospel...or he went for the purpose or contemplation and solitary communion with God, to deepen his repentance and fortify his soul with prayer. ...

He was an apostle “not of men, neither by man, and the Divine Will was “to work among the Gentiles by his ministry.”

[319]  Paul now returned to Damascus, and preached boldly in the name of Jesus. The Jews could not withstand the wisdom of his arguments, and they therefore counseled together to silence his voice by force — the only argument left to a sinking cause. They decided to assassinate him. The apostle was made acquainted with their purpose. ... In this humiliating manner Paul made his escape from Damascus. [99]    Saul had “returned to Damascus, preaching boldly in the name of Jesus.” The Jews, being no longer able to meet him in controversy, resorted to that which is the last argument of a desperate cause: they resolved to assassinate him. Saul became acquainted with the conspiracy. ... [100] There was something of humiliation in this mode of escape [from] Damascus.
[319]  He now proceeded to Jerusalem, wishing to become acquainted with the apostles there, and especially with Peter. He was very anxious to meet the Galilean fishermen who had lived, and prayed, and conversed with Christ upon earth. It was with a yearning heart that he desired to meet the chief of apostles. As Paul entered Jerusalem, he regarded with changed views the city and the temple. He now knew that the retributive judgment of God was hanging over them. [100]  He turned his steps towards Jerusalem. His motive for the journey, as he tells us in the Epistle to the Galatians, was a desire to Become acquainted with Peter. ... But he must have heard much from the Christians at Damascus of the Galilean fisherman. Can we wonder that he should desire to see the chief of the Twelve...who had long on earth been the constant companion of his Lord?

How changed was everything since he had last travelled. ...

[320]  The grief and anger of the Jews because of the conversion of Paul knew no bounds. But he was firm as a rock, and flattered himself that when he related his wonderful experience to his friends, they would change their faith as he had done, and believe on Jesus. He had been strictly conscientious in his opposition of Christ and his followers, and when he was arrested and convicted of his sin, he immediately forsook his evil ways. ... He now fully believed that when his friends and former associates heard the circumstances of his marvelous conversion, and saw how changed he was from the proud Pharisee...they would also become convicted of their error, and join the ranks of the believers. [101]  Yet not without grief could he look upon that city...over which he now knew that the judgment of God was impending. ... The grief...the fury...all this, he knew, was before him. The sanguine hopes...predominated in his mind. He thought that they would believe as he had believed. He argued thus with himself: that they well knew that he had “imprisoned and beaten;”...and that when they saw the change which had been produced in him, and heard the miraculous history he could tell them, they would not refuse to “receive his testimony.”
[320]  He attempted to join himself to his brethren, the disciples; but...they would not receive him as one of their number. They remembered his former persecutions, and suspected him. ... True, they had heard of his wonderful conversion, but as he had immediately retired into Arabia, and they had heard nothing definite of him farther, they had not credited the rumor of his great change. [101]  Thus, “he attempted to join himself to the disciples” of Christ. But as the Jews hated him, [102] so the Christians suspected him. His escape had been too hurried. ... Whatever distant rumor might have reached them...of his conduct at Damascus, of his retirement in Arabia, they could not believe that he was really a disciple.
[320] Barnabas, who had liberally contributed his money to sustain the cause of Christ, and to relieve the necessities of the poor, had been acquainted with Paul when he opposed the believers. [321] He now came forward and renewed that acquaintance. ... He fully believed and received Paul, took him by the hand and led him into the presence of the apostles. He related his experience which he had just heard — that Jesus had personally appeared to Paul while on his way to Damascus; that he had talked with him...and had afterward maintained that Jesus was the Son of God. [102] was Barnabas, already known to us as a generous contributor of his wealth to the poor came forward again...“took him by the hand,” and brought him to the apostles. It is probable that Barnabas and Saul were acquainted with each other before. ... When Barnabas related how “the Lord” Jesus Christ had personally appeared to Saul, and had even spoken to him, and how he had boldly maintained the Christian cause in the synagogues of Damascus, then the apostles laid aside their hesitation.
[321]  The apostles no longer hesitated; they could not withstand God. Peter and James, who at that time were the only apostles in Jerusalem, gave the right hand of fellowship. ...Here the two grand characters of the new faith met — Peter, one of the chosen companions of Christ while he was upon earth, and Paul, a Pharisee who, since the ascension of Jesus, had met him face to face, and had talked with him. ... [102]  Peter’s argument must have been:...“who am I that I should withstand God?” He and James, the Lord’s brother, the only other apostle who was in Jerusalem at the time, gave to him the “right hands of fellowship.”

[102] This first meeting of the fisherman of Galilee and the tentmaker of Tarsus, the chosen companion of Jesus on earth and the chosen Pharisee who saw Jesus in the passed over in Scripture in a few words.

[321]  This first interview was of great consequence to both these apostles; but it was of short duration, for Paul was eager to get about his Master’s business. Soon the voice which had so earnestly disputed with Stephen was heard in the same synagogue fearlessly proclaiming that Jesus was the Son of God — advocating the same cause that Stephen had died to vindicate. ... [102] The intercourse was full of present comfort and full of great consequences. But it did not last long. ... [103] The same zeal which had caused his voice to be heard in the Hellenistic synagogues in the persecution against Stephen now led Saul in the same synagogues to declare fearlessly his adherence to Stephen’s cause.
[322]  The same fury that had burst forth upon Stephen was visited upon himself. ... He had taken so active a part in the martyrdom of Stephen that he was deeply anxious to wipe out the stain by boldly vindicating the truth which had cost Stephen his life. ...

[323]  When the brethren learned of the vision of Paul, and the care which God had over his, their anxiety on his behalf was increased.

[103]  The same fury which had caused the murder of Stephen now brought the murderer of Stephen to the verge of assassination. ...

As he was the temple...he fell into a trance, and...saw Jesus, who...said...“Get thee quickly out of Jerusalem.”... He hesitated...the memory of Stephen, which haunted him...furnishing him with an argument. ... For the third time it was declared to him that the field of his labors was among the Gentiles. ... The care of God gave the highest sanction to the anxiety of the brethren.

Compare “Deliverance of Peter” chapter in Ellen G. White’s The Spirit of Prophecy [334-35] and the “Delivered from Prison” chapter in Ellen G. White’s The Act of The Apostles [143-54]—

With “Angel Visits in the Night” chapter of Daniel March’s Night Scenes in the Bible [451-66].

[352-3] Mark did not apostatize from the faith of Christianity. ...[Paul] distrusted his steadiness of character. ...The mother of Mark was a convert to the Christian religion; and her home was an asylum for the disciples. ...

He had witnessed the wonderful power attending their ministry;...he had seen the faith of his mother tested and tried without wavering; he had witnessed the miracles performed by the apostles...he had himself preached the Christian faith. ... He had, as the companion of the apostles, rejoiced in the success of their mission...and he sought the attractions of home at a time when his services were most needful.

[147] We are not to suppose that this implied an absolute rejection of Christianity. ... Yet...we shall...see good reasons why Paul should afterward, at Antioch, distrust the steadiness of his character. The child of a religious mother who had sheltered in her house the Christian disciples in a fierce persecution, he had joined himself to Barnabas and Saul. ... He had been a close spectator of the wonderful power of the religion of Christ, he had seen the strength of faith under trial in his mother’s home; he had attended his kinsman Barnabas in his labors of zeal and love...he had even been the “minister” of apostles in their successful enterprise. ... He was drawn from the work of God by the attraction of an earthly home.
[353] Paul was afterward reconciled to Mark, and received him as a fellow-laborer. He also recommended him to the Colossians as one who was a “fellow-worker unto the kingdom of God,” and a personal comfort to him, Paul. Again, not long prior to his death, he spoke of him as profitable to him in the ministry. [147] Nor did Paul always retain his unfavorable judgment of him [Mark] his Roman imprisonment, commended him to the Colossians as one who was “a fellow-worker unto the kingdom of God” and “a comfort” to himself; and in his latest letter, just before his death, he speaks of him again as one “profitable to him for the ministry.”
[355]  They could not endure that the Gentiles should enjoy religious privileges on an equality with themselves. ... This had ever been the great sin of the Jew. ...

When they learned that the Messiah preached by the apostles was to be a light to the Gentiles, as well as the glory of his people Israel, they were beside themselves with rage, and used the most insulting language to the apostles.

[159]  They could not endure the notion of others being freely admitted to the same religious privileges with themselves. This was always the sin of the Jewish people. ...

[160]  They found that this Messiah...was “a light to lighten the Gentiles” as well as “the glory of his people of Israel.” They made an uproar, and opposed the words of Paul with all manner of calumnious expressions, “contradicting and blaspheming.”

[355] The apostles now clearly discerned their duty, and the work which God would have them do. They turned without hesitation to the Gentiles, preaching Christ to them. ... The mind of Paul had been well prepared to make this decision, by the circumstances attending his conversion, his vision in the temple at Jerusalem...and the success which had already crowned his efforts among them. [160] And then the apostles, promptly recognizing in the willingness of the Gentiles and the unbelief of the Jews the clear indications of the path of duty...turned at once without reserve to the Gentiles. Paul was not unprepared for the events which called for this decision. The prophetic intimations at his first conversion, his vision in the temple at Jerusalem, his experience at the Syrian Antioch, his recent success in the island of Cyprus, must have led him to expect the Gentiles to listen.
[356]  Hosea had said, “...I will say to them which were not my people, Thou art my people.”

During the life of Christ on earth he had sought to lead the Jews out of their exclusiveness. The conversion of the centurion, and that of the Syrophenician woman, were instances of his direct work outside of the acknowledged people of Israel. ... The time had now come among the Gentiles, of whom whole communities received the gospel gladly, and glorified God. ... The unbelief and malice of the Jews did not turn aside the purpose of God; for a new Israel was Being grafted into the old olive-tree. The synagogues were closed against the apostles but private houses were thrown open for their use, and public buildings of the Gentiles were also used in which to preach the Word of God.

[357]  The Jews, however, were not satisfied with closing their synagogues against the apostles but desired to banish them from that region.

[160] That which was...foretold in the Old Testament...that [161] he should be honored by “those who were not a people,” — that which had already seen its first fulfillment in isolated cases during our Lord’s life, as in the centurion and the Syrophoenician woman whose faith had no parallel...began now to be realized. ... While the Jews...rejected Christ, the Gentiles “rejoiced and glorified the word of God.”...A new “Israel,” a new “election,” succeeded to the former. ...The synagogue had rejected the inspired missionaries, but the apostolic instruction went on in some private house or public building belonging to the heathen.

[161]  The enmity of the Jews, however, was not satisfied by the expulsion of the apostles from the synagogue. ... Thus a systematic persecution was excited...[to induce] a sentence of formal banishment.

[357] On this occasion the apostles followed the instruction of Christ: “Whosoever shall not receive you, nor hear you, when ye depart thence, shake off the dust under your feet for a testimony against them. ...” The apostles were not discouraged by this expulsion; they remembered the words of their Master: “Blessed are ye when men shall revile you, and persecute you, and shall say all manner of evil against you falsely, for my sake. Rejoice, and be exceeding glad.” [162]  In cases such as these instructions had been given by our Lord himself how his apostles were to act. ... “Whosoever shall not receive you, nor hear you, when ye depart thence, shake off the dust under your feet for a testimony against them.” ... Another of the sayings of Christ was fulfilled in the midst of those who had been obedient to the faith: “Blessed are ye when men shall revile you and persecute you, and shall say all manner of evil against you falsely, for my sake. Rejoice, and be exceeding glad.”
[358]  The apostles next visited Iconium. This place was a great resort for pleasure-seekers, and persons who had no particular object in life. The population was composed of Romans, Greeks, and Jews. ...The unbelieving Jews commenced an unreasonable opposition of those who accepted the true faith, and, as far as lay in their power, influenced the Gentiles against them.

The apostles, however, were not easily turned from their work.

[162]  Iconium has obtained a place in history...its population...a large number of trifling and frivolous Greeks...the theatre...the marketplace...some few Roman old-established colony of Jews. ...

[163]  The unbelieving Jews raised up an indirect persecution by exciting the minds of the Gentile population against those who received the Christian doctrine. But the apostles persevered, and lingered in the city... having their confidence strengthened by the miracles.

[360]  [The Jews] determined that the apostles should have no opportunity to vindicate themselves; but that mob power should interfere, and put a stop to their labors by stoning them to death. [164]  A determined attempt was at last made to crush the apostles by loading them with insult and actually stoning them.
[360]  The apostles next went to Lystra and Derbe, cities of Lycaonia. These were populated by a heathen, superstitious people. ... They now came in contact with an entirely new element, — heathen superstition — and idolatry.

[361]  They were brought in opposition with Jewish bigotry and intolerance, sorcery, blasphemy, unjust magistrates who loved to exercise their power, false shepherds, superstition, and idolatry.

[165]  The cities of Lystra and Derbe. ... One peculiar circumstance strikes us immediately in what we read of the events in this town — that no mention occurs of any synagogue or of any Jews. ...We are instantly brought in contact with a totally [166] new subject — with heathen superstition and mythology...but the mythology and superstition of a rude and unsophisticated people...with sorcerers and philosophers, cruel magistrates and false divinities.
[361]  In Lystra there was no Jewish synagogue, though there were a few Jews in the place. The temple of Jupiter occupied a conspicuous position there. ...

[362]  As Paul recounted the works of Christ...he perceived a cripple whose eyes were fastened upon him...whose faith he discerned. ... In the presence of that idolatrous assembly, Paul commanded [him] to stand upright upon his feet. ... Strength came with this effort of faith; and he who had been a cripple walked and leaped as though he had never experienced an infirmity.

[166] The temple of Jupiter was a conspicuous object in front of the city gates. ...

[167] Paul observed a cripple who was earnestly listening...setting his eyes on [him]. ... Paul perceived “that he had faith to be saved.” ... So Paul said before his idolatrous audience at Lystra, “Stand upright on thy feet.” ... The new strength in the body rushed. ... The lame man sprang up...and walked like those who had never had experience of infirmity.

[362]  The Lycaonians were all convinced that supernatural power attended the labors. ... [363] This belief was in harmony with their traditions that gods visited the earth...[that] Jupiter and Mercury, were in their midst. ...[Paul] they believed to be Mercury; for Paul was active, earnest, quick, and eloquent with words of warning and exportation. ...

[364]  But, after much persuasion...the people were reluctantly led to give up their purpose. ...

[365]  The miracle wrought upon the cripple, and its effect upon those who witnessed it, led them [the Jews] to...put their false version upon the work.

The same class had formerly accused the Saviour of casting out devils through the power of the prince of devils; they had denounced him as a deceiver; and they now visited the same unreasoning wrath upon his apostles.

[168]  An illiterate people would rush...immediately to the conclusion that supernatural powers were present...that the gods [Jupiter and Mercury] had again visited them in the likeness of men. ... They identified Paul with Mercury, because his eloquence corresponded with one of that divinity’s attributes...quick words of warning and persuasion. ...

[170]  The crowd reluctantly retired...when certain Jews found how great an effect it had produced on the people of Lystra...they would be ready with a new interpretation. ... They would say that it had been accomplished not by divine agency, but by some diabolical magic, as once they had said at Jerusalem that He who came “to destroy the works of the devil” cast out devils “by Beelzebub the prince of the devils.”

[366]  The malicious Jews did not hesitate to take full advantage of the superstition and credulity of this heathen people. ...

The martyrdom of Stephen was brought vividly to his [Paul’s] mind, and the cruel part he had acted on that occasion.

[171]  The Jews, taking advantage of the credulity of a rude tribe...had meditated...Paul was stoned — not hurried out of the city to execution like Stephen, the memory of whose death must have come over Paul at this moment with impressive force.
[367]  Timothy had been converted through the ministration of Paul, and was an eye-witness of the sufferings of the apostle upon this occasion. ... In one of the epistles of Paul to Timothy he refers to his personal knowledge of this occurrence. Timothy became the most important help to Paul and to the church. He was the faithful companion of the apostle in his trials and in his joys. The father of Timothy was a Greek; but his mother was a Jewess, and he had been thoroughly educated in the Jewish religion. [172]  We know from Paul’s own expression, “my own son in the faith,” that he [Timothy] was converted by Paul himself. ... Timothy was a witness of Paul’s injurious treatment. ... Paul in the Second Epistle to Timothy (iii.10,11) reminds him of his own intimate and personal knowledge of the sufferings ne had endured           

It was here...[Paul] found an associate who became to him and the Church far more than Barnabas, the companion of his first mission. ...

[171] Lystra...found...“Timotheus, whose mother was a Jewess, while his father was a Greek.”

[368]  The next day after the stoning of Paul, the apostles left the city, according to the direction of Christ: “When they persecute you in this city, flee ye into another.” [171] Jesus Christ had said, “When they persecute you in one city, flee to another,” and the very “next day” Paul departed with Barnabas to Derbe.
[368] But both Paul and Barnabas returned again to visit Antioch, Iconium, and Lystra, the fields of labor where they had met such opposition and persecution. In all those places were many souls that believed the truth; and the apostles felt it was their duty to strengthen and encourage their brethren. [173]  He turned back upon his footsteps, and revisited the places, Lystra, Iconium, and Antioch, where he himself had been reviled and persecuted, but where he had left, as sheep in the desert, the disciples whom His Master had enabled him to garner. They needed building up and strengthening in the faith.
[368] Churches were duly organized in places before mentioned, elders appointed in each church, and the proper order and system established there. ... But certain Jews...asserted, with great assurance, that none could be saved without being circumcised  

[370] The national peculiarities of the Jews, which kept them distinct from all other people, would finally disappear from among those who embraced the gospel truths.
[173] They ordained elders in every church...“they made choice of fit persons to serve the sacred ministry of the Church.”

[182] [The Jewish Christians] saw that Christianity...was rapidly becoming a universal and indiscriminating religion in which the Jewish element would be absorbed and lost. ...

[183] Some of the “false brethren”...said, “Except ye be circumcised after the manner of Moses, ye cannot be saved.

[372] Grace, wisdom, and sanctified judgment were given to the apostles to decide the vexed question.

Peter reasoned that the Holy Ghost had decided the matter by descending with equal power upon the uncircumcised Gentiles and the circumcised Jews.

[179] That grace gave to the minds of the apostles the wisdom, discretion, forbearance, and firmness which were required. ...

[187]  Peter...rose to address the assembly. ... The communication of the Holy Ghost was the true test of God’s acceptance, and respecter of persons...[shed abroad] the same miraculous gifts on Jew and Gentile.

[374] This address of Peter brought the assembly to a point where they could listen with reason to Paul and Barnabas, who related their experience in working among the Gentiles. ...

James bore his testimony with decision.

[188]  The next speakers were Paul and Barnabas. ... They had much to relate of what they had done and seen together. ...

James...pronounced the Mosaic rites were not of eternal obligation...[189] with great force on all who heard it.

[375] The Gentiles, however, were to take no course which should materially conflict with the views of their Jewish brethren, or which would create prejudice in their minds against them. [189] A due consideration for the prejudices of the Jews made it reasonable for the Gentile converts to comply with some of the restrictions.
[377] When Peter, at a later date, visited Antioch, he acted in accordance with the light given him. ... Quite a number followed Peter’s example. Even Barnabas was influenced. ...Paul...openly rebuked him. ...

Peter saw the error into which he had fallen.

[193] Paul and Barnabas protracted their stay [at Antioch]. It is in this interval that...[occurs] that visit of Peter to Antioch. ...Other Jewish Christians were led away by his example...even Barnabas...was “carried away”... When Paul...perceived the motive...[he rebuked] Peter “before all.” ...

[196] It is not improbable that Peter was immediately convinced of his fault.

Compare “Imprisonment of Paul and Silas” chapter of Ellen G. White’s Spirit of Prophecy, vol. 3 [378-87]—

with Daniel March’s Night Scenes in the Bible [470-76].

[394]  The minds of the Bereans were not narrowed by prejudice, and they were willing to investigate and receive the truths preached. [281]  Their minds were less narrowed by prejudice, and they were more willing to receive “the truth in the love of it.”
[394]  The unbelieving Jews...again stirred up the excitable passions of the lower class to do them [apostles] violence. ... This hasty retreat from Berea deprived Paul of the opportunity he had anticipated of again visiting the brethren at Thessalonica.

[394]  God, in his providence, permitted Satan to hinder Paul from returning to the Thessalonians. Yet the faithful apostle steadily pressed on through opposition, conflict, and persecution, to carry out the purpose of God as revealed to him in the vision at Jerusalem: “I will send thee far hence unto the Gentiles.”

[395]  From Berea Paul went to Athens. He was accompanied on his journey by some of the Bereans who had been newly brought into the faith, and who were desirous of learning more from him of the way of life.

Statues of their gods and the deified heroes of history and poetry met the eye in every direction. ...

[282]  The Jews...“stirred up the people there.” ... And on this occasion, as on that, the dearest wishes of his [Paul’s] heart were thwarted. The providence of God permitted “Satan” to hinder him from seeing his dear Thessalonian converts...and the path of the apostle was urged on, in the midst of trial and sorrow, in the direction pointed out in the vision at Jerusalem — “far hence unto the Gentiles.”

[283]  Meanwhile, some of the new converts accompanied Paul in his flight, thus adding a new instance to those we have already seen of the love which grows up between those who have taught and those who have learnt the way of the soul’s salvation.

[395]  Sanctuaries and temples, involving untold expense, reared their lofty forms on every hand. Victories of arms, and deeds of celebrated men, were commemorated by sculptures, shrines, and tablets. ...[Paul’s] spirit was stirred with jealously for God, whom he saw dishonored on every side—

[396]  Paul was not deceived by the grandeur and beauty of that which is eyes rested upon, nor by the material wisdom and philosophy. ... He perceived that human art had done its best to deify vice and make falsehood attractive. ...

[293] At the entrance...was the statue of Mercurius Propylaeus. ... Farther on was a shrine of Diana...intermixed with what had reference to divinities were the memorials of eminent men and of great victories. ...But the main characteristics...were mythological and religious, and truly Athenian.

[297]  He burned with zeal for that God...whom he saw dishonored on every side. He was melted with pity for those who...were “wholly given to idolatry.” ... His eye was not blinded to the reality of things by the appearance either of art or philosophy. Forms of earthly beauty and words of human wisdom were valueless in his judgment...if they deified vice and made falsehood attractive.

[396]  His solitude...was oppressive. ... He felt himself to be utterly isolated. In his Epistle to the Thessalonians he expresses his feelings in these words: “Left at Athens alone.” ...

Paul’s work was to bear the tidings of salvation to a people... He was not traveling for the purpose of sightseeing, nor to gratify a morbid desire for new and strange scenes. ... Grieved at the idolatry everywhere visible about him, he felt a holy zeal for his Master’s cause. ... But the principal work of Paul in that city was to deal with paganism.

[297]  The existence of this feeling is revealed to us in the Epistle to the Thessalonians. ... The sense of solitude weighed upon his spirit. ... It was a burden and a grief to him to be “left in Athens alone.”  ... But with us such feelings are often morbid. ... We travel for pleasure, for curiosity, for excitement. ... Paul travelled that he might give to others the knowledge of salvation. ...

[298]  Though moved with grief and indignation...he deemed his first thought should be given to his own people. The subjects [of our attention] are connected not with Judaism, but with paganism.

[397]  The religion of the Athenians...was of no value. ... It consisted, in great part, of art worship, and a round or dissipating amusement and festivities. ... Genuine religion gives men the victory over themselves; but a religion of mere intellect and taste is wanting in the qualities essential to raise its possessor above the evils of his nature. [299]  The valueless character of the religion...ministered to art and amusement, and was entirely destitute of moral power. ... Taste was gratified. ... Excitement was...kept up by festal seasons, gay processions, and varied ceremonies. ... But all this religious dissipation had no tendency to make him [the Athenian] holy. It gave him no victory over himself, it brought him no nearer to God. A religion which addresses itself only to the taste is as weak as one that appeals only to the intellect. ...
[398]  They...conducted him to Mars’ Hill. ... This was the most sacred spot in all Athens...regarded with superstitious awe and reverence. ... Here, the most solemn court of justice had long been held. ...The judges sat in the open air, upon seats hewn out in the rock. ...

[399]  Here, away from the noise and bustle of crowded thoroughfares...the apostle could be heard...for the frivolous, thoughtless class of society did not care to follow him. ...

[308] The place to which they took him [Paul] was the summit of...Areopagus, where the most awful court of judicature had sat. ... The judges sat in the open air, upon seats hewn out in the rock. ... It was a place of silent awe, in the midst of the gay and frivolous city. ...
[401] The Epicureans began to breathe more freely, believing that he was strengthening their position. ...

But his next sentence brought a cloud to their brows. ...

[403]  The words of the traced by the pen of inspiration, were to be handed down through all coming generations, bearing witness of his unshaken confidence ...and the victory he gained for Christianity.

[403] Inspiration has given us this glance at the life of the Athenians.

[313] The Epicurean might almost suppose that he heard the language of his own teacher. ... And when the Stoic heard the might have seemed like an echo of his own thought, until the proud philosopher learnt that it was no pantheistic diffusion of power and order of which the apostle spoke, but a living centre of government and love. ... That speech on the Areopagus is... the first victory of Christianity over paganism. ... God, in his providence, has preserved to us in fullest profusion...the literature of the Athenian people.
[404]  Paul...went at once to Corinth. Here he entered upon a different field of labor from that which he had left. ... He came in contact with the busy, changing population of a great center of commerce. Greeks, Jews, and Romans mingled in its crowded streets...intent on business and pleasure. ... [316] When Paul went from Athens to Corinth he entered on a scene very different from that which he had left. ... His present journey took him from a quiet provincial town to the busy metropolis. ...
[404] Situated upon a narrow neck of land between two seas, it commanded the trade. ... A vast citadel of rock, rising abruptly and perpendicularly from the plain to the height of two thousand feet above the level of the sea, was a strong natural defense to the city and its two sea-ports. Corinth was now more prosperous than Athens, which had once taken the lead. Both had experienced severe vicissitudes; but the former had risen from her ruins, and was far in advance of her former prosperity, while the latter had not reached to her past magnificence. Athens was the acknowledged center of art and learning; Corinth, the seat of government and trade. [316] Once there had been a time, in the flourishing age of the Greek republics, when Athens had been politically greater than Corinth, but now that the little territories of the Levantine cities were fused into the larger provincial divisions of the empire, Athens had only the memory of its pre-eminence, while Corinth held the keys of commerce. ... Both cities had recently experienced severe vicissitudes, but a spell was on the fortunes of the former... while the latter rose from its ruins, a new and splendid city, on the isthmus between its two seas, where a multitude of Greeks and Jews...gradually united themselves with the military colonists...and were kept in order by the presence of a Roman proconsul.
[404] This large mercantile city was in direct communication with Rome, while Thessalonica, Ephesus, Alexandria, and Antioch were all easy of access, either by land or water. An opportunity was thus presented for the spread of the gospel. [317] It was a large mercantile city, in immediate connection with Rome and the west... with Thessalonica and Ephesus in the Aegean, and with Antioch and Alexandria in the East. The gospel once established in Corinth would rapidly spread everywhere.
[405] There was now a much larger number of Jews in Corinth. ...

[407] His [Paul’s] whole soul was engaged in the work of the ministry; but he seated himself to the labor of his humble trade.

[318] There were a greater number of Jews in the city than usual. ...

[320] Though he knew the gospel to be a matter of life and death to the soul, he [Paul] gave himself to an ordinary trade with as much zeal as though he had no other occupation.

[413] As he was contemplating leaving the city for a more promising field, and feeling very anxious to understand his duty in the case, the Lord appeared to him in a vision of the night. ... Strengthened and encouraged, he continued to labor there with great zeal and perseverance for one year and six months. A large church was enrolled under the banner of Jesus Christ. [329] In a vision vouchsafed at this critical period... the Lord, who spoke to him in the night, gave his assurance. ...Paul received conscious strength in the moment of trial...and the divine words were fulfilled in the formation of a large and flourishing Church...through the space of a year and six months.
[414] Both Greeks and Jews had waited eagerly for the decision of Gallio; and his immediate dismissal of the case, as one that had no bearing upon the public interest. [344] The Greeks are standing round, eager to hear. ... Gallio will not even hear his defence, but pronounces a decided and peremptory judgment. ...

It was only a question of Jewish law...of no public interest.

[414] If the apostle had been driven from Corinth at this time because of the malice of the Jews, the whole community of converts to the faith of Christ would have been placed in great danger. [344] Had he [Paul] been driven away from Corinth, the whole Christian community of the place might have been placed in jeopardy.
The Spirit of Prophecy, Vol. 3, E. G. White 1878 The Life and Epistles of the Apostle Paul Conybeare & Howson 1852
[415] The city of Ephesus was the capital of the province of Asia, and the great commercial center of Asia Minor. Its harbor was crowded with shipping from all parts of the known world, and its streets thronged with the people of every country. [390] It [Ephesus] was the greatest city of Asia Minor, as well as the metropolis of the province of Asia. ... Being constantly visited by ships from all parts of the Mediterranean, it was the common meeting-place of various characters and classes of men.
[416]  On his arrival at Ephesus, Paul found twelve brethren, who, like Apollos, had been disciples of John the Baptist, and like him had gained an imperfect knowledge of the life and mission of Christ. They had not the ability of Apollos, but with the same sincerity and faith they were seeking to spread the light which they had received.

These disciples were ignorant of the mission of the Holy Spirit.

[417]  They were then baptized “in the name of Jesus,” and as Paul laid his hands upon them, they received also the baptism of the Holy Spirit, by which they were enabled to speak the languages of other nations and to prophesy.

[390] Among those whom Paul met on his arrival was the small company of Jews above alluded to who professed the imperfect Christianity of John the Baptist. By this time Apollos had departed Those “disciples”

...were in the same religious condition in which he had been...though doubtless they were inferior to him both in learning and zeal. ... They were ignorant of the great outpouring of the Holy Ghost. ... On this they received Christian baptism, and after they were baptized the laying-on of the apostle’s hands resulted, as in all other churches, in the miraculous gifts of tongues and or prophecy.

[420]  As was his custom, Paul had begun his work at Ephesus by teaching in the synagogue of the Jews. He continued to labor there for three months, “disputing and persuading the things concerning the kingdom of God.”...He was soon violently opposed by the unbelieving Jews. As they persisted in their rejection of the gospel, the apostle ceased preaching in the synagogue. [391] There is no doubt that he “reasoned” in the synagogue at Ephesus with the same zeal. ... “For three months” Paul continued to speak...“arguing and endeavoring to convince his hearers of all that related to the kingdom of God.” The hearts of some were hardened—On this he openly separated himself and with- drew the disciples from the synagogue.
[421]  Paul separated the disciples as a distinct body, and himself continued his public instructions in the school of one Tyrannus, a teacher of some note. [391] As...Corinth had afforded Paul a refuge and an opportunity of continuing his public here he had recourse to “the school of Tyrannus,” who was probably a teacher of philosophy or rhetoric Christianity.
[422] Like Moses and Aaron at the court of Pharaoh, the apostle had now to maintain the truth against the lying wonders of the magicians. ... As the hem of Christ’s garment had communicated healing power to her who sought relief by the touch of faith, so on this occasion, garments were made the means of cure to all that believed. ... When Jesus felt the touch of the suffering woman, he exclaimed, “Virtue is gone out of me.” [392] Here, at Ephesus, Paul was in the face of magicians, like Moses and Aaron before Pharaoh. ...

[393] When the suffering woman was healed by touching the hem of the garment, the Saviour turned round and said, “Virtue is gone out of me.”

[422] The manifestations of supernatural power which accompanied the apostle’s work, were calculated to make a deep impression upon a people given to sorcery. [393] These miracles must have produced a great effect upon the minds of those who practiced curious arts in Ephesus.
[422] Sorcery had been prohibited in the Mosaic law, on pain of death, yet from time to time it had been secretly practiced by apostate Jews. [393] The stern severity with which sorcery was forbidden in the Old Testament attests the early tendency of the Israelites to such practice.
[423] The discomfiture... of those who had profaned the name of Jesus, soon became known...

[424] The practice of magic was still to some extent continued among them. ...

[394] This fearful result of the profane use of that Holy Name...became notorious. ... Even among those who had given their faith...some appear to have retained their attachment to the practice of magical art. ...
[428] The month of May was specially devoted to the worship of the goddess of Ephesus. ... Musical contests, the feats of athletes...and the fierce combats...drew admiring crowds. ... The officers chosen to conduct this grand celebration were the men of highest distinction in the chief cities of Asia. They were also persons of vast wealth, for in return for the honor of their position, they were expected to defray the entire expense of the occasion.

[431]  Several of the most honorable and influential among the magistrates sent him [Paul] an earnest request not to venture into a situation of so great peril. ...

The tumult at the theater was continually increasing. ... From the fact that Paul and some of his companions were of Hebrew extraction, the Jews felt that odium was cast upon them. ... Seeing that Alexander was a Jew, they thrust him aside. ...

[432]  Having by his speech completely tranquilized the disturbed elements, the recorder dismissed the assembly. ...

[433]  Paul’s labors in Ephesus were...concluded. His heart was filled with gratitude to God.

[435] The whole month of May was consecrated to the glory of the goddess. ... The Ionians witness the gymnastic and musical contests. ... To preside over these...annual officers were appointed. ... Each of the principal towns chose one of its wealthiest citizens. ... Those who held...the office of high distinction. ... Being required to expend rather large sums...they were necessarily persons of wealth. Men of consular rank were often willing to receive the appointment.

[437]  Some of the asiarchs...had a friendly feeling towards the apostle [and]...they sent an urgent message to him to prevent him from venturing into the scene of disorder and danger. ...

[438]  The Jews...seem to have been afraid lest they should be implicated in the odium. ... He [Alexander] was recognized immediately by the multitude as a Jew. ...

[439]  So, having rapidly brought his arguments to a climax, he tranquillized the whole multitude. ...

With gratitude to that heavenly Master who had watched over...he gathered together the one last affectionate meeting.

[433] Paul parted from his children in the faith with an affectionate farewell. He set out on his journey to Macedonia, designing on the way thither to visit Troas. He was accompanied by Tychicus and Trophimus, both Ephesians, who remained his faithful companions and fellow-laborers to the close of his life. [441] After...the affectionate parting between Paul and the Christians of Ephesus...he visited Alexandria Troas on his Macedonia.

[442] We find that Tychicus and Trophimus (both Ephesians) were with him at Corinth...both of them remaining faithful to him through all the calamities which followed...both mentioned as his friends and followers almost with his dying breath.

The Acts of the Apostles E. G. White 1911 The Great Teacher John Harris 1836 (1870 ed.)
[9] The church is the repository of the riches of the grace of Christ; and through the church will eventually be made manifest...the final and full display of the love of God. [160] The church is his mystical body, and he is present as the vital head. ... It is the theatre of his grace...the repository in which all that wealth is stored, preparatory to its full and final display.
[12] “Whereunto,” asked Christ, “shall we liken the kingdom of God? or with what comparison shall we compare it?” ... This kingdom is to uplift and ennoble humanity. God’s church is the court of holy life, filled with varied gifts and endowed with the Holy Spirit. The members are to find their happiness in the happiness of those whom they help and bless. [153] “Whereunto,” saith he, “shall we liken the kingdom of God, and with what comparison shall we compare it?” ... His church is the court of holy love, filled with offices and appointments of charity and grace, ringing into it pity, and kindness, and zeal, he baptizes them with the Spirit of Heaven, assigns them each appropriate duties, and commands them to find and fabricate their happiness out of the happiness of others.
[28] The disciples were to carry their work forward in Christ’s name. Their every word and act was to fasten attention on His name, as possessing that vital power by which sinners may be saved. Their faith was to center in Him who is the source of mercy and power. In His name they were to present their petitions to the Father, and they would receive answer. They were to baptize in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. Christ’s name was to be their watchword, their badge of distinction, their bond of union, the authority for their course of action, and the source of their success. Nothing was to be recognized in His kingdom that did not bear His name and superscription. [32] His disciples, as often as they desired to call down spiritual blessings, were to employ his name, and their plea would prevail... They were to baptize to his name. In his name they were to summon and subvert the strongholds of idolatry and sin, and to arouse nations from the slumbers of spiritual death. ... His name was to be their watchword, their badge of distinction, the principle of their piety, the bond of their union, the end of their actions* the authority for their conduct, and the source of their success. Nothing was to be recognized or received in his kingdom which did not bear the superscription of his name.
[37] During the patriarchal age the influence of the Holy Spirit had often been revealed in a marked manner, but never in its fullness. ... He claimed the gift of the Spirit, that He might pour it upon His people. [122]  A very limited measure of this gift, indeed, — the mere earnest of the Spirit, — had been enjoyed under the Jewish dispensation; but the Spirit in his fulness was not then given. ...

Nothing was wanting, but that he should ascend his throne, and claim the gift of the Spirit, to pour it out upon his people.

[38] It was as if for ages this influence had been held in restraint, and now Heaven rejoiced in being able to pour out upon the church the riches of the Spirit’s grace. ... The sword of the Spirit, newly edged with power and bathed in the lightnings of heaven, cut its way through unbelief. Thousands were converted in a day. [122] The Spirit if his influences had for ages been pent up and under restraint, and now rejoiced at being able to pour themselves out over the church and the world. ... The sword of the Spirit seemed newly edged with power, and, bathed in the lightnings of heaven, flashing conviction on human consciences.
[38] “It is expedient for you that I go away,” Christ had said to His disciples; “for if I go not away, the Comforter will not come unto you; but if I depart, I will send Him unto you.” “When He, the Spirit of truth, is come, He will guide you into all truth: for He shall not speak of Himself; but whatsoever He snail hear, that shall He speak: and He will show you things to come.” [120]  “It is expedient for you that I go away; for, if I go not away, the Spirit will not come unto you; but, if I depart, I will send him unto you.”
[38] Christ’s ascension to heaven was the signal that His followers were to receive the promised blessing. For this they were to wait before they entered upon their work. When Christ passed within the heavenly gates, He was enthroned amidst the adoration of the angels. As soon as this ceremony was completed, the Holy Spirit descended upon the disciples in rich currents, and Christ was indeed glorified, even with the glory which He had with the Father from all eternity. The Pentecostal outpouring was Heaven’s communication that the Redeemer’s inauguration was accomplished. According to His promise He had sent the Holy Spirit from heaven to His followers as a token that He had, as priest and king, received all authority in heaven and earth, and was the Anointed One over His people. [121]  Can we suppose that his ascension to heaven was a silent and private transaction? ... At the point where he vanished from the view of mortals, he was joined by the rejoicing ranks of the cherubim and seraphim...impatient to commence the celebration of his deeds, and to conduct him in triumph to his glorious throne.

[121]  Hitherto...he had inhabited the material parts of creation...because Jesus, for whose bestowment the gift was reserved, was not yet glorified. ...

[122]  Nothing was wanting, but that he should ascend his throne, and claim the gift of the Spirit, to pour it out upon his people. ...

Having reached his throne, the Spirit came down as he had promised — came, like a rushing mighty wind.

[47] When Christ gave His disciples the promise of the Spirit, He was nearing the close of His earthly ministry. He was standing in the shadow of the cross, with a full realization of the load of guilt that was to rest upon Him as the Sin Bearer. [124] Standing as he did at that moment near to the cross, in the shadow of that awful monument of human guilt, he could not have glanced around the scene...without feeling...that he was unburdening his mind. ...
[48] What was the result of the outpouring of the Spirit on the Day of Pentecost? The glad tidings of a risen Saviour were carried to the uttermost parts of the inhabited world. As the disciples proclaimed the message of redeeming grace, hearts yielded to the power of this message. The church beheld converts flocking to her from all directions. Backsliders were reconverted. Sinners united with believers in seeking the pearl of great price. Some who had been the bitterest opponents of the gospel became its champions. ... “He that is feeble...shall be as David; and the house of the angel of the Lord.” ... Every Christian saw in his brother a revelation of divine love and benevolence. One interest prevailed; one subject of emulation swallowed up all others. The ambition of the believers was to reveal the likeness of Christ’s character and to labor for the enlargement of His kingdom. [122]  The gospel went flying abroad to the utmost ends of the earth, levying human hearts in the name of Christ wherever it came.

[123]  The influences of the Spirit poured over the world like an inundation. ... The church beheld her converts flocking to her, from all directions, like clouds of doves to their windows...and, among the see her bitterest persecutors become her champions and her martyrs. ...

[124]  Believers themselves seemed reconverted; if sinners became saints, saints themselves became as angels. ... “The weak shall be as David, and David as an angel of the Lord.” Every Christian saw in every other the face of an angel — looks of benevolence and brotherly love; one interest prevailed, one subject of emulation swallowed up every other — who should approach nearest to the likeness of Christ, which should do most for the enlargement of his reign

[50] The lapse of time has wrought no change in Christ’s parting promise to send the Holy Spirit as His representative. ... Wherever the need of the Holy Spirit is a matter little thought of, there is seen spiritual drought, spiritual darkness, spiritual declension and death. Whenever minor matters occupy the attention, the divine power which is necessary for the growth and prosperity of the church, and which would bring all other blessings in its train, is lacking, though offered in infinite plenitude. [147] He was in search of the strongest solace, and he had an infinite variety of subjects to choose from... He made him the great promise of his new dispensation! And yet, less fulfilled to the church than the promise of the Spirit? ... Other blessings are desired; but this, which would bring all blessings in its train, which is offered in an abundance corresponding to its infinite plenitude — an abundance, of which the capacity of the recipient is to be the only limit, of this we are satisfied with just so much. ... Each falling shower...reproaches us with the spiritual drought of the church. And so long have we accustomed ourselves to be content with little things...that we have gone far in disqualifying ourselves...for great things.
[52] The office of the Holy Spirit is distinctly specified in the words of Christ. ...

To the repentant sinner, hungering and thirsting for righteousness, the Holy Spirit reveals the Lamb of God that taketh away the sin of the world. “He shall receive of Mine, and shall show it unto you.” ...

The Spirit is given as a regenerating agency. ...

[127]  To produce this happy junction is the object of the regenerating Spirit; so that subjection to him is restoration to one’s self. ...

The same truth appears in another original statement of Christ declarative of the means by which the Holy Spirit should operate on the mind —“He shall take of mine and show it unto you.”

[128]  The absolute necessity of regeneration by the Holy Spirit comes to us...

The Acts of the Apostles E. G. White 1911 From Dark to Dawn Daniel March 1878
[146] But man’s extremity is God’s opportunity. [65] Man’s extremity is God’s opportunity.
The Acts of the Apostles E. G. White 1911 Night Scenes in the Bible Daniel March 1868-1870
[146] The light that surrounds the angel fills the cell, but does not rouse the apostle. Not until he feels the touch of the angel’s hand and hears a voice saying, “Arise up quickly,” does he awaken sufficiently to see his cell illuminated by the light of heaven, and an angel of great glory standing before him. Mechanically he obeys the word spoken to him, and as in rising he lifts his hands he is dimly conscious that the chains have fallen from his wrists. [460] He is awaked suddenly from deep sleep, and his cell, which had never seen a sunbeam, is all ablaze with light. There stands before him a being radiant with celestial beauty, gentleness and might. He hears a voice which he cannot choose but obey, “Arise.” He lifts his hands and they are no longer chained. He stands upon his feet and he is free. Again the voice in quick, commanding tones, “Gird thyself — bind on thy sandals.” He tightens the leathern belt about his loins, never once ceasing to gaze with dazzled eyes at the stranger.
[147] Again the voice of the heavenly messenger bids him, “Gird thyself, and bind on thy sandals,” and again Peter mechanically obeys, keeping his wondering gaze riveted upon his visitor and believing himself to be dreaming or in a vision. Once more the angel commands, “Cast thy garment about thee, and follow me.” He moves toward the door, followed by the usually talkative Peter, now dumb from amazement. They step over the guard and reach the heavily bolted door, which of its own accord swings open and closes again immediately, while the guards within and without are motionless at their post. [461]  Again the voice, “Cast thy garments about thee”...and the angel moves toward the closed and bolted door. And all the while this impulsive man, Peter, who was always talking, even when he had nothing to say, has not said a word. He steps over the prostrate guards. ... They approach the door — it is shut. ... How they passed it Peter does not know. He has not seen it open or close. It was before them; it is now behind them, and they move on. There are soldiers within and soldiers without. ...

[462]  It is all light as day about the man and the angel, and yet it seems to the man as if he were dreaming. ...

[147] The second door, also guarded within and without, is reached. It opens as did the first, with no creaking of hinges or rattling of iron bolts. They pass through, and it closes again as noiselessly. ... No word is spoken; there is no sound of footsteps. The angel glides on in front, encircled by a light of dazzling brightness, and Peter, bewildered, and still believing himself to be in a dream, follows his deliverer. Thus they pass on through one street, and then, the mission of the angel being accomplished, he suddenly disappears. [462] But then there is no sound of unbolting, no stir of look of the soldier-guards within or without, as if they knew that anybody were passing. Ana the gate is shut the moment the angel and the man are in the street. Peter follows his guide bewildered and wondering what will be the end, and in a moment more he finds himself alone.
[147] Peter felt himself to be in profound darkness; but as his eyes become accustomed to the darkness, it gradually seemed to lessen, and he found himself alone in the silent street, with the cool night air blowing upon his brow. He now realized that he was free, in a familiar part of the city; he recognized the place as one that he had often frequented and had expected to pass on the morrow for the last time. [462] The streets are silent. No light shines from the blank walls of the houses. The splendor that flowed from his mysterious guide is gone. But the bewildered man begins to come to himself. He recognizes the place. It was along this very street that the rude soldiers led him a week ago, with the ruder rabble hooting after him. ... It was just here that ne expected to meet the faces of the mob in the morning when the order came to lead him forth to torture and death.
[148] He remembered falling asleep, bound between two soldiers, with his sandals and outer garments removed. He examined his person and found himself fully dressed and girded. His wrists, swollen from wearing the cruel irons, were free from the manacles. He realized that his freedom was no delusion, no dream or vision, but a blessed reality. On the morrow he was to have been led forth to die; but, lo, an angel had delivered him from prison and from death. [463]  Not quite sure that it is himself or that he is fully awake, he feels in the dark for the crease of the manacle on the swollen wrist. The mark is there, but the chain is gone. Did he bind on his sandals when told in the prison? He stamps upon the ground. Yes, they are on his feet now. And his girdle and cast-off robe that lay beside him on the stone floor in the hot and stifling cell? Yes, he has them all. And it is no dream. God’s mighty angel has led him along the street where he expected to be led in mockery by Herod’s men of war.
[213] Then her masters were alarmed for their craft. They saw that all hope of receiving money from her divinations and soothsayings was at an end and that their source of income would soon be entirely cut off if the apostles were allowed to continue the work of the gospel. [470] One of the two men...delivered the unhappy slave from her spiritual tormentors, and so her masters could no longer make gain of her pretended inspiration. They were greatly incensed because their fraud and cruelty were now exposed, and their opportunity to profit by imposture was lost.
[214] They had been accustomed to hear shrieks and moans, cursing and swearing, breaking the silence of the night; but never before...prayer and praise ascending from that gloomy cell. Guards and prisoners marveled and asked themselves who these men could be, who, cold, hungry, and tortured, could yet rejoice. [469] Shrieks and groans and execrations had many times been heard in that dark abode. Never before had the unhappy inmates been disturbed at midnight by the sound of praise and prayer.

Who were the men...?

[472] And there they were for the night, suffering hunger and thirst and cold and torture.

[214] Meanwhile the magistrates returned to their homes, congratulating themselves that by prompt and decisive measures they had quelled a tumult. [473] The magistrates had gone to their homes, flattering themselves that by promptness and energy they had suppressed a popular tumult.
[215] The heavily bolted prison doors were thrown open; the chains and fetters fell from the hands and feet of the prisoners; and a bright light flooded the prison. [475] The bolted doors are all thrown open. The chains and fetters of every prisoner are loosed and all are free.
[215] When they were led in, he had seen their swollen and bleeding wounds, and had himself caused their feet to be fastened in the stocks. [472] The jailor descended after them, laid them upon their inflamed and tortured backs on the stone floor, stretched out their feet and hands and pinioned them down between strong timbers.
[215] Starting up in alarm, he saw with dismay that all the prison doors were open, and the fear flashed upon him that the prisoners had escaped. He remembered with what explicit charge Paul and Silas had been entrusted to his care the night before, and he was certain that death would be the penalty of his apparent unfaithfulness. In the bitterness of his spirit he felt that it was better for him to die by his own hand than to submit to a disgraceful execution. Drawing his sword, he was about to kill himself. [475] He sees the prison doors open. He supposes the prisoners to have gone. He knows that, by the stern usage of Roman law, his life will have to be paid as the forefeit for their escape. In despair he determines to anticipate the shame of a public execution by plunging his sword into his own bosom.
[216] The jailer dropped his sword and, calling for lights, hastened into the inner dungeon.

[216] These things seemed of little consequence compared with the new strange dread.

[476] He drops his sword, calls for a light, rushes into the inner prison through the open doors, leaps down into the subterranean dungeon. ... Saved, simply from punishment under Roman law for the escape of the prisoners.
The Acts of the Apostles E. G. White 1911 Walks and Homes of Jesus Daniel March 1856
[273] The philosopher turns aside from the light of salvation, because it puts his proud theories to shame; the worldling refuses to receive it, because it would separate him from his earthly idols.

[SEE the identical statement in Ellen G. White’s Sketches from the Life of Paul, page 125.]

[327]  This great mystery of the cross explains all other mysteries. ... The philosopher will not receive it because it puts all his proud theories to shame. The worldling will not receive it because it draws and persuades and commands with such awful authority to a spiritual and a holy life.

References and Notes

1. See Guy Herbert Wluslow, "Ellen Gould White and Seventh­day Adventism," Dissertation (Worcester, MA: Clark University, 1932); and W. Homer Teesdale, "Ellen G. White: Pioneer, Prophet," Dissertation (University of Calif., 1933)

2. Robert W. Olson letter to Daniel C. Granrud,4 September 1980.

3. Robert W. Olson, "Ellen G. White and Her Sources," Tapes of address to Adventist Forum, with question period, at Loma Linda University Church, January 1979.

4. Robert W. Olson letter to Daniel C. Granrud,2 October 1980.

5. Olson to EGW Estate Trustees, 29 November 1978, p. 5.

6. Appendix, comparison exhibits in general.

7.Jonathan M. Butler, "The World of E. G. White and the End of the World," Spectrum 10, no. 2 (August 1979): 2­13. Also Donald R. McAdams expanded this theme at the 28­29 January 1980 meeting of the Glendale Committee on EGW Sources.

8. W. C. White, quoted by Robert W. Olson and Ronald D. Graybill. Tapes of seminar at Southern Missionary College in the fall of 1980.

9. W. C. White to General Conference Committee, 3 October 1921.

10 John Harvey Kellogg], "An Authentic Interview...on October 7th,

11. The indication in my book is that few, if any, of those knowledgeable as to the making of Ellen White's books entertained the idea of verbal inspiration.

12. See the list of "witnesses" that follows in this chapter.

13. Linden, Winslow, Teesdale, and others make it clear that an evolution of value as to the "inspiration" and "authority" of Ellen White's writings took place over the years.

14. No one seriously argues that Ellen did not know what she was doing, or what was being done. Indeed, the problem would be much more serious if she did not know. l his chapter is concerned with how different ones at different times sought to solve the problem.

15. Robert W. Olson letter to Daniel C. Graorud,2 October 1980.

16. Arthur L. White in his 1969 "supplement" at the of the facsimile reprint of EGW, The Spirit of Prophecy, vol. 4, p. 535.

17. Uriah Smith to Dudley M. Canright, 22 March 1883.

18. Ellen G. White Estate, "A Statement Regarding the Experiences of Fannie Bolton in Relation to Her Work for Mrs. Ellen G. White," Document file 445, p. 8. This release contains a section giving "Elder Starr's report" of his conversation with Ellen White concerning Fannie Bolton.

19. Fannie Bolton to "Dear Brethren in the truth." A rough draft in EGW Estate Document File 445.

20. Merritt G. Kellogg, handwritten statement, ca. 1908.

21. John Harvey Kellogg], "An Authentic Interview," 7 October 1907, pp. 23­39. Kellogg's statements stenographically recorded.

22. George B. Starr, in EGW Estate "A Statement Regarding ... Fannie Bolton. EG\V Estate DF 445.

23. UHK], "An Authentic Interview," pp. 33­36. George Amadon's statements, stenographically recorded.

24. [Bible Conference], "The Bible Conference of 1919," Spectrum 10, no. I

(May 1979): 34.

25. Ibid., p. 52. ;~;

26. W[illiam] W[arren] Prescott to W. C. White, 6 April 1915.

27. W[illard] A[llen] Colcord letter, 23 February 1912. See chapters nine and thirteen.

28. H. Camden Lacey to Leroy E. Froom, 11 August 1945. H. Camden Lacey to Arthur W. Spalding, 5 June 1947.

29. [Healdsburg, California] Pastors' Union, "Is Mrs. E. G. White a Plagiarist?"Healdsburg Enterprise (20 March 1889).

30. James White, "The Gifts of the Gospel Church," Review (21 April 1851): 70. (Reprinted in Review 4 [9 June 1853]; 13­14) Quoted by Earl W. Amundson, "Authority and Conflict," read at Glacier View Theological Consultation (15­20 August 1980).

31. [Editorial notice], Review 12 (24 Tune 1858): 48.

32. Ellen G. White, Spiritual Gifts, vol. 2, preface.

33. Earl W. Amundson, "Authority and Conflict," p. 25.

34. Jack W. Provonsha, "Was Ellen White a Fraud?" Loma Linda University, 1980, p. 1.

35. Robert D. Brinsmead,Judged by the Gospel, p. 172.

36. J. Jerry Wiley to Jack W. Provonsha, 22 May 1980.

37. H[enry] E. Carver, Mrs. E. G. White's Claims to Divine Inspiration Examined, 2nd ed. (Marion, Iowa: Advent and Sabbath Advocate Press, 1877)pp. 75­80.

38. Ibid., pp. 75­80.

39. W[illiam] S. Sadler, The Truth about Spiritualism (Chicago: A. C. McClure & Co., 1923), pp. 157­58.

40. Ibid.

41. Ibid., p. 159.

42. According to the SDA Encyclopedia (see "Visions," p. 1557), Ellen White's last "open vision" was in June 1 84. Linden, in The Last Trump, says that James White emphasized that "her muscles become rigid, her joints fixed," and her eyesight needed some time to accommodate itself back to normal.

43. Winslow, Guy Herbert, "Ellen Could White and the Seventh­day Adventism," Dissertation (Worcester, MA: Clark University, 1932) p. 290.

44. Linden, Ingemar, The Last Trump, pp. 159­163.

P 45. hi. Donald Deutsch, The New Nuts among The Berries, Palo Alto Ca Bull

46. Manlyn Dunlop, "Were Adventist Founder's Visions Caused by Injury,"

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